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Huntington Free Library 

Native American 


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tine Cornell University Library. 

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Very Rev. James H. Defouri, 

Pastor of the Church of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Santa Fe. 

McCoEMiCK Bbos., Pbintees, 410 Sansomb Stbeet, 










|^alho% «^l|^siri|K «tl^ ^^ Jil ^^^^^ 


FiBST Attempt to Found a Mission. 

It is customary for a certain class of men to assert at all 
times and places, that this continent is indebted entirely- 1& 
the Saxon or Anglo-Saxon race for its population, its civiliza- 
tion and its progress.* These men, doubtless, forget that.this 
is an injustice of the gravest nature. Many others who do not 
think for themselves, follow them, ascribing to the Anglo- 
Saxon people the honor of winning for civilization and the- 
glorious destiny being worked out here, a continent which is; 
the inspiration and spur of both. The world forgets too oft- 
en that it was a child of the Latin race, a stanch Catholic, a 
pious hero, who conceived the idea jof the Western continent, 

* Statdsfieians place the population of America at 57,000,000 souls; na- 
tive whites 38,601,676; native Negroes 6,566,776; native Indians 64,587; 
Germans 1,966,742; Irish 1,854, 5r2; British 917,598; Canadians 275,000; 
Scandinavians 449,262; French 106,971; Chinese 104,468, making a total 
of 50,907,652. I call " natives" the sons of any of these nationalities, 
who are born in the United States. The other 7,000,000 are of scattered 
nationalities, such as Italians, Mexicans of old Mexico, Spaniards, etc. . 
How many Anglo-Saxons are there ? 


and it was a Spauish Sovereign, a stout Catholic, Isabella sur- 
named " the Catholic," who placed at his disposal the means 
necessary to pursue his researches in the pathless and un- 
known Western Ocean.. 

^ Latei', the Spanish people won through the gallantry of Cor- 
tez the Mexico of to-day, and' the splendid Territory ol New 
Mexico is but the hopeful progeny of the civilization he 
planted there. If we consult the best historians of those times. 
We find the hero Cortez, after burning his vessels, for he must 
conquer or die — marching at the head of his five hundred war- 
riors, preceded by a banner, on which was wrought in gold, 
a beautiful cross on a black field, and beneath the cross these 
memorable words: Amici Seqaamur Grucem, " Friends, let us 
follow the Cross."* Horror-stricken at beholding the human 
sacrifices offered everywhere by the natives, he destroyed their 
idols satiated with human blood, and in their stead he planted 
the Cross and built churches, where devoted priests sacrificed 
themselves to the welfare of the Indians. 

Soon after the death of MoDtezuma,f the last of the Incas, 
the Spaniards were attracted towards what is now New Mex- 
ico, by the wonderful tales they heard from the Indians, of its 
great riches in gold and silver. ^ 

* The best periodical in the whole West, the Monitor, published in 
San Franeisco by the true hearted S. J. MoCormick, in its No. of Decem- 
ber 29, 1886, has the foUo^ying: The Standakd or Cobtez. — Among the 
prized relics which are shown in the National Museum at Mexico, is the 

, banner under which Cortez conquered the Empire of the Montezumas. 
It is of red damask, with a very beautiful picture of the Blessed Virgin 
painted upon it. She wears a gold crown, and is encircled by twelve gold 
stars; a blue cloak and red dress, her hands united, as if to implore her 

■ Son to aid in overthrowing the idolatrous dynasty. On the otherside are 
the arms of Castile and Leon. It is about threfe feet square, and was 
■preserved in the University in a frame under glass to prevent decay. A 
few years ago it was removed to the National Museum for better preserva- 
tion. Its authenticity is sustained by a series of accounts, beginning with 
that of Bernal Diaz, who describes how it was borne iu the procession 
when Cortez returned thanks to God at Cuyoaoan for the capture of the 
city of Mexico in 1519. 

+ Some writers consider the history of Montezuma mythical. Others 
consider him as a powerful monarch; it is all an error. Mexico was a 

confederacy, and he was the principal chief, or president, Montezuma 
-means the " Great Chief ," or " Worthy Chief." He receiTed a tribute 

rom all the States or Provinces of the Confederacy. 


When Cortez conquered Mexico in 1521, he came across 
traditions among the Aztecs, who had founded the city of 
Mexico in 1325 — traditions •which still exist among the Pueb- 
los of New Mexico, as well remarks Hon. W. G. Ritch, ex-Sec- 
retary of New Mexico, in his " Chronological Annals of New 
Mexico," that they came originally from Salt Lakes, Lagunas 
Saladas, far to the north, and that Montezuma, mounted upon 
an eagle, subsequently led them from Pecos, where he was 
born, or at least where he dwelt, to the city of Mexico. They 
called what is now New Mexico, the '' Seven Cities," relating in 
glowing terms the wealth and greatness, as well as the beauty 
of that country. 

Among these " Seven Cities" was one, pre-eminent even in 
those remote times, called Tiguex or Tegua, now Santa Fe.* 
That it was renowned at the time of the founding of the Aztec 
Confederacy in 1426, is very plain from the taxes it had to pay 
toward the general government, an account of which I have 
read but cannot now find. It belonged to the Province of the 
Tajnos (or Tanos) which contained forty-thousand inhabitants. 
Tiguex played a prominent part at the time of the expedition 
I of C|,ronado in 1541. The land of the "Seven Cities" was 
called also by the name of Cibola. Under this name, the origin 
of which is uncertain, it was known by the Spaniards, ten years 
before the expedition of Caronado. Davisf says it means "The 
Buffalo," but searching Spanish lexicons he finds it translated 
" a quadru^d, called the Mexican bull;" Mexico was then 
known as the country of the buffaloes. 

It would carry us too far back to speak in detail of the vari- 
ous expeditions sent from Mexico to Cibola. Nuno de Gusman 
was the first to start, but he' never reached it, and after num- 
berless difficulties he founded the Kingdom of New Galicia, 
establishing the seat of his Government at Xalisco and Tolona. 
After eight years he was deposed by the Viceroy, Don Anto- 
nio De Mendoza, and thrown into prison. Subsequently Fran- 

* More than one writer doubts the identity of Tiguex with Santa Fe. 
But so far nothing has been brought forward, but mere assertions. On 
the other hand Eaany others are of the opinion which I follow. I regret 
the loss of the "List of taxes imposed upon the various pueblos," as it was 
a document of real value which would go far towards proving my opinion. 

t Conquest, p. 110. 



■oisco Vasquez Caronado, a gentleman from Salamanca, in 
Spain, but for some time established in Mexico, was appoint- 
■ed Governor of New Galicia. It was at that time that Cabeza 
•de Vaoa gave Mendoza so bright an account of Cibola, that a 
new expedition was decided upon.* This expedition was 
placed by Mendoza, under the direction of a Franciscan friar, 
aiamed Marcos de Nizza, an Italian by birth, of the city of 
Nice. He was a man full of zeal and inured to hardship and 
-danger. Marcos and his little army set out. from Culiacaa, 
Friday, 7th of March, 1539. He went no further than Cibola; 
-deterred as he was by the dangers surrounding him, for he 
bad been threatened by the Indians, if he proceeded on his 
journey. He planted a cross and took possession of the coun- 
try, " In the name of Mendoza, for his Majesty the Emperor," 
and called the country. El Ifiievo Reyno de San Francisco — 
TThe new kingdom of St. Francis. 

After the return of Marcos, Caronado grew excited at the 
accounts of the Friar, set out for Mexico, and was appointed 
Captain-general of a new expedition. A number ot priests 
Joined Caronado, and Castaneda, the historian of the expedition, 
was probably one of them. In any case, he was a man of educa- 
tion and accustomed to writing, and his narrative is far 
superior to most of the histores composed at that period. 
His book was translated into French by Ternaux Campans, in 

Coronado having appointed his officers, mailed to the 
place of rendezvous, Campostella, in the State of Xalisco, in 
separate columns, and arrived there on Shrove-Tuesday, 1541. 
Soon after leaving Campostella, the troops which had started 
in high sf)irits, became discouraged. The soldiers did not 
know how to pack horses; the most refined gentlemen were 
obliged to be their own muleteers, and necessity obliged the 
noble and low-born to perform the same menial services. Dif- 
ficulties increased, but Father Marcos, who was the very spir- 
it of the expedition, encouraged the troops; thus they advanc- 
ed by slow journeys to the New Kingdom of Saint Francis. 

* Cabeza de Vaca had, as is well-known, crossed with four companions 
the whole Oontinent from Florida to the Pacific Ocean. The learned 
-Bendelier is of opinion that he never crossed Oibola, but far more to the 
south. Be this as it may, he nevertheless spoke as if he had visited the 


Soon Caroaado quartered bis troops at Cibola, and sent before 
him Hernando Al\arado, who with twenty men was to accom- 
pany some Indians who had come from Tiguex and Cicuye, to 
invite them to visit their pueblos. .Alvarado treated the 
pueblo of Tiguex, in a very harsh manner, compelling them to 
leave their houses, and forbidding them to take anything with 
them; he sent ivord to Caronado to come there to make his win- 
ter quarters. This action of Alvarado, was the commence- 
ment of that terrible hatred of the Indians for the Spaniards^ 
which, after centuries of suffering, culminated in the overthrow 
of the Spanish rule at Tiguex and of the whole of the territory. 

In the Spring of 1542, Caronado set out for Cicuye and^ 
thence proceeded on the plains, and reached the river of 
" Seven Leagues," " covered with vessels," as told by the In- 
, dians. It appears he reached Missouri, at the plaice where 
now stands Fort Leavenworth; when, discouraged at not find- 
ing the gold he sought, he started on his homeward journey, 
foot sore, tired and soiled by travel, he reached again Tiguex 
for the winter of 1542, and wintered there. \ 

Many soldiers and even officers, unwilling to return to Mex- 
ico, deserted the service and remained at Tiguex, and formed 
the first white settlement in that renowned place. These 
events happened at the beginning of April 1543, a date to 
which we can well assign, the foundation of Santa Fe as a 
Mission, although it was not called by that name until 1598, 
when we see it called so by Juan de Onate in his Discurso de 
las jornadas que hizo el Capritan de su Magestad desade la 
Nueva Esperna, a la ptovincia de la Nueva Mexico, Septenjber 
9,1598; alo/ciudad de San Franoisco de losUspanoles que al 
presente se Edifiean. (Discourse of the journeys made by the 
Captain of His Majesty from New Spain to the Province of 
New Mexico, September 9, 1598, the city of Saint Francis of 
the Spaniards, which they are now building.) It was then 
that the city took the name of Santa Fe; some authors say 
that for five years it was called Yonque, but this is'probably a 
mistake; this was the first attempt at founding a mission.* 

" It is possible that iu 1543 was built the celebrated church of San 
Miguel, which stands to-day, at least as far as the lower walls are con- 
cerned, for it was destroyed by the Indians in 1680. 



History of the Mission of Santa Fb, 1543. 

When Caronado returned from his expedition to the Mis- 
souri river, in the Fall of 1542, he was perfectly discouraged ; 
all discipline was at an- end, and thus he passed the Winter at 

Early in'the Spring he met with a serious accident, being 
thrown senseless from his horse, and was confined to bed tor 
a long time, with his life in great danger. When recovering, 
hearing of the revolt of some Indians who had been goaded to 
it by the conduct of some of his officers in their regard, he was 
seriously affected and bad a relapse. Anxious to return to 
Mexico, he caused his officers and soldiers to petition him to 
lead them back to New Spain. Soon the soldiers regretted 
this petition, they preferred to remain at Tiguex, and they 
begged of him to.revoke it, but he sternly refused, and shut 
himself up, not wishing to see any one. They resolved to 
steal the petition they had given him in writing, but he kept 
it about his person day and night. The desertion of officers 
and soldiers became almost a stampede, and Caronado had 
not a hundred men to return to Mexico, which he reached only 
to find the Viceroy much displeased with the manner in which 
be had conducted the expedition. Soon afterwards he was 
deprived of his province, and fell into disgrace. 

The Spanish settlement at Santa Fe- dates, therefore, from 
the leaving of Caronado in the Spring of 1543. This is so 
, true that Caronado left with the deserters Blathers Juan de 
Padilla and Juan de la Cruz, with a Portuguese named An- 
dres de C8,mpo, to wait on them. Father Juan de la Cruz 
went on a mission to Cibola, and was killed by the Indians. 
Juan de Padilla remained for some time at Tiguex ; soon he 
extended the sphere of his missions, and hearing of the good 
disposition of the Indians of Quivira, he went to visit them; 
but he was killed by Tejas Indians while on his knees at 
prayer. The Tejas did not wish him to go to Quivira, because 
they were at war with that pueblo. 

Father Juan de Padilla was afterwards buried in the church 
of the Pueblo of l|ja Isleta. His coffin was made of a hollow 


alamo, and a strange rumor of him is current among the men of 
the Pueblo, and the country about. It is said that no matter how 
deep he is buried, he always rises in his cofQn to the very sur- 
face of the ground; thus he was found two or three times. 
His body is within the sanctaary, on the Gospel side, between 
the wall and the altar platform. Whatever be the cause of 
this, it is worthy of investigation, as there is but little doubt 
that he died the death of a martyr. 

Thus, for a while, the Spanish deserters and new settlers, 
the first Catholic mission at Tiguex, and for all that, in the 
whole of New Mexico, were left without the means of prac- 
ticing their religion. They were not long without priests. The 
Franciscan Order sent more Eeligious to search for the lost 
Spaniards and to convert the Indians. Among many others 
are named Fathers Augustine Ruiz, Francisco Lopez and Juan 
de, Santa Maria. They were accompanied by twelve soldiers 
who came with them as far as the pueblo of Sandia, near 
Bernalillo. There they abandoned the Fathers and returned 
home. Father Juan de Santa Maria came 'to Tiguex; he at- 
tended to the wants of the settlers, converted a number of In- 
dians who had returned to their houses. He succeeded so well 
that he set out for Mexico to call more priests, and to give an 
account of his micision; but be was killed by the Teguas Indiana 
neara pueblo called SanPablo, in the neighborhood6fElPaso. 
Father Lopez also was killed while at his devotions outside of 
the pueblo of Paruay, on the Rio Grande, and Father Ruiz re- 
mained alone mourning the loss of his companions. Still hewas 
notdiseouragedandresolvedtocontinue his mission. Thegovern- 
or of Paruay, much affected by the death of Lopez, resolved to 
to save Ruiz by removing him to pueblos farther. up on the 
river; but his death was resolved, and it was impossible to 
save him. He was killed a few days afterwards and his body 
thrown into the river, then in flood, as food for the fishes. 
Thus, the Teguas Indians completed their bloody and unholy 
work, putting to death three men of God, who had come only 
with the strength of their charity and their zeal for the salva^ 
tion of souls. 

Here is the time for saying, " Fear not, little flock, for it is 
well known that the blood of martyrs is the seed of salvation." 
The work of saving souls was progressing everywhere, and- 
priest sucesded priest in this arduous work. Old chroniclers 


tell jns that by the year 1629, there were baptized, thirty-four 
thousand six hundred and fifty Indians, and many others 
■were in a state of conversion, and at that time there were al- 
ready forty three churches in New Mexico, all built by the In- 
dians, except San Miguel, in Santa Fe, built possibly about or 
soon after 1543, and afterwards destroyed and rebuilt again, and 
Our Lady of Guadalupe, also in Santa Fe, which may have been 
built by the Spaniards about 1598, as also other churches, 
now forgotten. A sure fact is that in February 1614, the body 
of Lopez was disinterred and solemnly deposited in the church 
of the pueblo of Sandia, with great ceremonies. " A number 
of priests" having come from Santa Fe, and the surrounding 
pueblos, " all marching on foot and dressed in full vest- 

The Frsinciscan Order, alarmed at the return of the soldiers 
to Mexico, knowing well that their priests were without help 
in a heathen country, immediately appealed to men of good 
will to go out and rescue -them. Antonio de Espejp, a man 
of courage and faith, offered his services to the Franciscans; 
they accepted them, and with the royal permission, an army 
was fitted out, which left San Bartolomeo, in Mexico, on the 
10th of December, 1582. 

Espejo everywhere pacified the Indians; everywhere the 
numerous priests, who accompanied him, made'coaversions. 
He destroyed no property, and persuaded all of the In- 
dians to stay in their houses and be friendly with the Span- 
iards. All over he built churches, erected crosses, and 
formed settlements of white people, alongside of the Indian 
settlements. Espejo did much for the pacification of the In- 
dians. Having fulfilled his engagement with the Franciscans, - 
the three Fathers having been put to death as we have seen 
above, he nevertheless remained in New Mexico, visiting many 
provinces, making stanch friends of the Indians, establishing 
parishes and forming Settlements. He returned to Mexico in 
the beginning of July, 1584. He there wrote the relation of 
his journey for Conde de Caruna, the Viceroy, who for- 
warded the same to the King of Spain and the lords of the 
council for the Indians. These documents, with many others 
before and after, were deposited in the royal library of Se- 
" ville, and I understand that the government of Spain is about 

* See Davis, Conquest. 


to publish the whole, with magnificent charts, under the name 
of Cartas de las Indias. 

It would be out of my purpose to write in detail the suc- 
cessive expeditions of Humana, who on account of his cruel- 
ty, had his army almost annihilated by the Quiviras; of Juan 
de Onate, who brought over three hundred families to settle 
them in the territory, and established most^ of them in the 
country about Santa Cruz and Santa Fe, but obtained permisr 
sion to reduce " the nativeg to a slate of obedience, which 
he interpreted by reducing them to slavery." All these facts 
were written by Padre Geronimo de Yarate Salmeron, a Fran- 
ciscan who remained eight years in New Mexico, visited all 
the Pueblos, and went personally to Mexico to lay before his 
superiors the result of his mission. His journal was approved 
in the year 1629 by Father Francisco de Apodaca, his Su- 

It seems that all or nearly all the Indians being Christians, 
as well as their rulers, the Spaniards, things should have gone 
on smoothly. The simple-minded natives were generally of 
an amiable disposition, helping the Spaniards in the cultiva- 
tion of their fields, and performing other menial duties. But 
in a few years the Spaniards began to assume the prerogatives 
of masters; a rule of tyranny and slavery was established. In- 
stead of letting the_ priests alone to see to the conversion of 
the Indians, fanatical Spaniards tried to convert them with 
the sword. In a short time they looked upon the Spaniards 
with intense hatred; low murmurs followed, and then open 
revolt. They were arrested and severely punished, but never 
resigned. Thus it went on for centuries; the Church suffered 
much ip those times, and the conversion of the Indians was 
greatly retarded. Finally it culminated in the great Rebellion 
of 1680, which shall be treated separately. 



The Gbbat Revolt of 1680. 

In the year 1680, Pope, a native of the pueblo of San Juan, 
a man of decided ability and great eloquence, visited all the 
pueblos of New Mexico and pictu«ed to them the wrongs they 
were suffering, and roused them to a desire of throwing off the 

Pope enjoined absolute secrecy on all; the pueblos were all 
invited, except that of Piras. Helping Pope in his endeavors 
were Catite, a half-breed Queres Indian, Tacu of San Juan, 
Taca of Taos, and Francisco of San Ildefonso. San Juan, 
however, remained faithful to the Spaniards, and was on that 
account called San Juan de los Gaballeros — The gentlemanly San 
Juaners. Nicholas Bua, governor of San Juan, Pope's son-in- 
law, was put to death at the hand of Pope himself, for fear he 
would betray him to the Spaniards.* The time fixed for the 
Rebellion was the 10th of August; all preparations were made 
to massaci:e every Spaniard — priest and layman in the country. 
But the Indiana of Tezuque, a few miles from Santa Fe, al- 
though they had participated in the plot,- came to the govern- 
or two days before, and divulged the scheme. The Indians, 
being apprised of this, resolved upon the work of destruction 
without delay, and all Christians, priests and seculars, wom- 
en and children fell under their blows, except a few of the 
handsomest maidens whom the warriors reserved for wives. 
General Otermin, the governor, was unprepared and paralyzed 
with fear; the capital was besieged by an army, and Otermin 
with a few followers, unable lo defend Santa Fe,, resolved to 
leave it to its fate, and with all the Spaniards fled, and never 

* Pop^ visited Bua at night, and under the pretext of communicating lo 
him important secrets, drew him out of the pueblo into a dark spot, and 
while speaking to him, plunged a knife in his heart. Bua did not expect 
such a treatment, and was unarmed. He fell with a,faint cry, and was soon 
dispatched and buried secretly by the treacherous Pop^. It was re- 
ported that he had gone to Santa' F^ to confer with the Spaniards. When 
he did not return, it was said he was held in captivity by the authori- 


rested till he reached El Paso, where the Franciscans support- 
ed him and his followers for a whole winter. Some of the 
Spaniards settled in Socorro, desiring to return to Santa Fe in 
a short time. 

In the meanwhile, Santa Fe was given up to pillage. The 
churches were desecrated and partly pulled down. San Miguel 
and the Castrense church suffered much; Guadalupe being 
somewhat out of town fared better for awhile, but was sacked 
the following year. The Indians, putting on priestly vest- 
ments, were seen riding about the city, drinking from sacred 
vessels, which could not be carried away. In other pueblos 
and villages, the priests and Spaniards, not being aware of the 
rising, remained quietly in their houses, and were all mas- 
sacred with great cruelty and wantonness; then the churches 
were razed to the ground; the worship of the serpent, with its 
dances, including the indecent cacMna, were prescribed anew 
to all good Indians, the estufas were reopened, and they were 
ordered to abandon even the names of their baptism, and take 
new ones. It was decreed in solemn council that " God, the 
Father, and Mary, the Mother of the Spaniards were dead, and 
that the Indian gods alone remained." They made offerings 
of flour, feathers, corn, tobacco and other articles to propitiate 
their heathen deities. After this, all those grim warriors re- 
paired to the little Santa Fe river, and there, divesting them- 
selves of their scant clothing, washed their whole bodies with 
amole or soap-weed, to " Wash off their baptism." 

Hundreds of Spaniards, among whom were eighteen priests, 
besides civilized Indians, fell during the Eebellion and the 
withdrawing of Ofcermin. The loss to the Indians in the vil- 
lages which defended themselves, was.much more consider- 
able. In Santa F e alone, with the scanty means that the 
Spaniards had, more than four hundred were killed, and many 
more were wounded. 

On the 5th of November of the following year, Otermin, 
equipped by the Franciscans of El Paso, started with an army 
to reconquer New Mexico. All the old inhabitants of Santa 
Fe, eager to recover their property, went with him. They 
suffered greatly while crossing La Jornada del Muerto, where 
for a distance of ninety mile^, water is not to be found, ex- 
cept what collects in holes after a rain. 

La Jornada del Muerto is properly a table-land betwe.en 


raountains, and is shaped like a canoe. Its width varies from 
five to thirty miles; a high range of mountains in the west 
shuts up all approach to the Eio Grande, which makes a very 
long bend to the west. It has been named the " Journey of 
Death," on account of the number of persons killed, either by 
Mescalero Apache Indians, by want of water, or by storms 
while crossing it. To-day the A. T. S.' F. railroad passes 
through it, and water has been found in about its center. 

Otermin, following the Rio Grande, marched towards Santa 
Fe; some Pueblos submitted , but only while the troops were 
present. Still the priests, and in particular, Father Ayeta, of 
El Paso, who accompanied the expedition, baptized many at 
La Isleta and Sandia, but when the army reached the Pueblo 
of Cienegilla, near Santa Fe, Juan, a Tozuque Indian, advised 
them of a plot to destroy them. Afraid of remaining any 
longer in the country, they set out on their homeward journey 
and reached El Paso on the 11th of February, 1582. 

Several other attempts at conquest were made in .1685 by 
Domingo Jeronza Petrez de Cruzate, the newly appointed 
governor. Only fragments of Cruzate's journal remain in the 
archives of Santa Fe. We know that-he was governor until 
1G89, but never reached his capital. 

In 1692, a new expedition was entrusted to Don Diego de 
Vargas Zapate Lnjan by the Viceroy, Count Galvas. He left 
El Paso on the 31st of August, and by rigid marches reached 
Santa Fe on the 12th of September, 

Diewo de Vargas, deserves more than a passing notice. It 
has been said that he was an avaricious and ambitious man. 
It is true that later on, when he had conquered all the Pueblos, 
and placed them under the Spanish rule, he seemed to incline to 
those vices, but he was a man of faith, feared by the Indians 
who remained his enemies, but kind and generous to those 
who acknowledged his rule. All of these were placed in pueb^ 
los, with the best lands which the country could afford. 

Vargas carried everywhere with him a statue of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, and wherever he stopped, a little sanctuary was 
built, and devotions were offered by the army. We may meet 
yet several of those places, called by the people los palacios, 
among others one near Agua Frja, five miles west of Santa 
Fe. He entered the city by the road called El oamino de Var- 
gas, and stood with his troops near the church of Our Lady of 


Guadalupe.* Thence, crossing the Rio Santa Fe at a place 
called yet — Puente de Vargas, he went to the very spot where 
now stands the Chapel of Our Lady of the Rosary, and there 
he erected apalacio. On the next day, September 13th, Var- 
ga,s with his small troop, attacked the Indians, who were cen- 
tered on a waste, which is now the beautiful plaza of Santa 
Fe; they had fortified themselves, and were reinforced by the 
neighboring pueblos, to thte number of ten thousand. 
The battle raged with great ardor on both sides from four ia 
the morning until nightfall, without apparent result. Then, 
Vargas, in the name of his troops on their bended knees, be- 
fore the statue of Mary, made the solemn vow, that should he 
take the city, every year that same statue should be brought ia 
solemn procession from the principal church in the city to the 
spot on which they were camping, where he should build a 
sanctuiry, and there be left for nine days, the people flocking 
to the chapel to thank Mary for this victory, attributed to her.. 
On the dawn of day, the next morning, he attacked with im- 
petuosity the fortified Indians, and drove them from the 
plaza; at eight o'clock they retired upon the loma, north of 
the city wbere he attacked them, and by noon not an Indian 
was seen in the neighborhood. 

Faithful to his promise, Vargas built the Sanctuary of Our 
Lady of the Rosary, and the fulfilment of the vow, commenc- 
ed then, siill continues every year on the Sunday after the 
Octave of Corpus Christi, by carrying what is most probably 
the identical statue possessed by Vargas, and called by the 
people Nuestra Senora de la Victoria, " Our Lady of the Vic- 
tory, "f in great pomp, with music and pious chanting, from 
the Cathedral of St. Francis to the Chapel of the Rosary, and 
for nine days mass is chanted there, all the people making 
daily pilgrimages in thanksgiving for the favor received. The 

* The reason why Vargas crossed the river was the greater facility he 
had of attacking the Indians from the north-west, the ground being high- 
er and the plaza being more open on that side. Besides, what is now 
Lower San Francisco street, was a groVe of trees in low, swampy gronnd, 
the bed of the river not being as deep as it is now. 

+ It is also called la Conquistadoi-a. There seems very little doubt but 
it is Vargas' statue. It has been somewhat repaired a few years ago, and 
the repairs have spoiled the natural beauty of her face, for it is of fiae 


church built in baste by Vargas fell into a ruinous state, and 
the one standing there now was commenced over the old one 
in the year 1807, and solemnly blessed in 1808, 

Santa Fe having fallen, twelve surrounding pueblos submit- 
ted at once, and were taken possession of in the name of the 
King of Spain. The priests baptized in Santa Fe seven hun- 
dred and sixty -nine persons. The work of pacifying the ter- 
ritory became easy, and soon universal peace reigned in New 
Mexico. Vargas then repaired the churches, and among the 
first the old church of San Miguel, but did not complete it, 
and it remained in that state until 1710, when the front tower 
was built by the Marquez de la Penuela, as an inscription in 
the church testifies. Ue built the Bosario, and no doubt, re- 
paired the old Castrense, for his own use. This church was on 
the spot occupied now by the great merchant houses of Spieg- 
elberg and Don Felipe Delgado. The Cathedral of San Fran- 
cisco was re-built somewhat later, I think abput 1730, long 
after the removal of Vargas. The church of Gruadalupe, as 
mentioned above, being somewhat out of the city, seems to 
have suffered less than the other churches at the time of the 

We may well say that the conquest of New Mexico termi- 
nated there, and that the power of the Indian nations was 
broken forever. At that epoch, the authority of the Spaniards 
both ecclesiastical and civil, was acknowledged in all the pueb- 



Los Pueblos. 

The question has been often raised, "Were the Pueblos 
placed in villages by the Spaniards, or did the Spaniards find 
them in pueblos or towns in coming into New Mexico ?" 

It requires but slight reading and examination to be satis- 
fied that, on their arrival the Spaniards found these people 
living in villages, many of which still exist. The old descrip- 
tions given by Castaneda and others about the villages of the 
Moquis, Zuni, Acoma, Jemes, Tiguex, Oicuye and others, are 
too plain to be mistaken . 

The people of these pueblos were doubtless of the old Mex- 
ican stock. There is i^o doubt of identity of race, religion and 
customs between the indigenous population' of Old and New 
Mexico. Neither is there any doubt, that the description of 
Baco and Caste'nada equally establish the identity of the 
Pueblos they found with those of to-day. The Pueblos, then 
as now, were a distinct people from the wild, roaming savages. 
They lived in villages, cultivated the soil, and had trades and 

The Navajoes and Apaches of to-day, are as easily distin- 
guished from the Pueblos as in the time of the earliest con- 
querors of New Mexico. 

Again, we find the village life of the native Mexican recog- 
nized in the earliest Spanish records of the conquest; and 
within four years after the landing of Cortez, provision by roy- 
al decree was made for the protection of the system. It is true 
that the language of the decree gives the impression that the 
Pueblos were then for the first time to be placed in villages; 
but a careful scrutiny of subsequent decrees, and of the ac- 
counts left by Cortez, will show that they were, in fact, already 
living in small and scattered villages, and that for safety, de- 
fense, economy of government and facilities for religious in- 
struction, they were brought into larger communities. 

We possess an edict dated June 26, 1523, one of 1533, one 
of 1538. Charles V, on the 21st of March, 1551, issued also a 
decree from Cigales as it can be found in La Ley Ide la Ee- 
capilacion de las Indias. Philip II, in consequence of the in- 


tention of the Emperor Charles, published a statute on the 
founding of settlements. It would be entirely too long to 
quote any part of these decrees, thus issued from time to time 
by the Kings of Spain, down to the time of the revolt of Mex- 
ico. I pass to the origin of the Pueblos. The most accepta- 
ble opinion concerning the origin and race of the Pueblos is, 
that they are of the same people and stock as the Mexicans 
found by Cortez. Separated from their more favored brethren 
of the Valley of Mexico f'who far surpass them in the arts of- 
civilization) by two thousand miles of mountains and unin- 
habited regions, yet evidently they were of the same origin, reli. 
gion and language; left, doubtless in the Valley of the Eio 
Grande at the time when the forefathers of those who fought 
Cortez were progressing southwardly. 

Learned treatises have been written on'the subject; some 
contending that the Pueblos are of Aztec, others that they are 
of Toltec origin. But the question remains as obscure as be- 
fore. Their traditions say that they came from the north. 
How did they come to the north ? I think the opinion which 
says that they are the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, mixed with 
some Tartars, is not at all improbable.-* I lately «aw a work- 
in which the author tries to prove they were Phonicians and 
not Jews. Classed by dialectSj the pueblos of New Mexico, at 
the period of the arrival of the Spaniards, spoke four separate 
and distinct languages, called the Tegua, the Piro, the Queres 
and the Tagnos, This classification has passed away, and to- 
day all the Pueblos of New Mexico are divided, as to dialect, 
i nto five classes : 1, Sandia, Isleta, Picuri s and Taos; 2, Co- 

* AocQrding to the Chihuahua Enterprise, about four leagues south of 
Magdalena in Sonora, a pyramid cut in the. rock has been found with 
1350 feet of base and a height 750 feet, with a winding roadway from the 
bottom, easy of ascent, and large enough for carriages; the walls are cov- 
ered with debris, and the suaharo and other indigenous plants cover the. 
whole; the rocks about half way up are of gypsum; there are no windows 
and the entrance is at the top; the rooms are one above the other, but so 
as to leave a terrace in front of each dwelling. The next one receding 
several feet, and so on to the top; the rooms are eight feet from floor to 
ceiling. The great question is, who were the people who lived there and 
at what period did they live there ? Some say they were the ancestors of 
the Mayas, a race of Indians who still inhabit southern Sonora, who 
have blue eyes, fair skin and light hair, and are said to be a moral, in- 
dustrious and frugal race of people, who have a written language and 
know something of mathematics. 


chiti, Santo Domingo, San Felipe, Santa Ana, Laguna and 
Aeoma; 3, Jemes; 4, Zani; 5, San Juan, Santa Clara, 'Natnbe, 
San Ildefonso, Pojuaque and Tezuqug. 

Thus by language, these Indians are nearly all cut off from 
verbal communication, not only with Mexicans, but with 
Pueblos of a different dialect. Some of them speak Spanish, 
and this is their mode of communication with other Pueblos 
of a different native tongue. It does not follow, however, that 
the groups by dialect correspond with their geographical 
grouping, and this is owing to the massing the Indians in 
larger pueblos, for the sake of economy and the facilities of 

The Pueblo's manner of building is very peculiar, and the 
fact that the houses of some of the primitive races, still exist- 
ing in parts of Old Mexico, and those now found in the pueb- 
lo villages of New Mexico, are of perfectly similar construc- 
tion and distribution, goes far to fix the identity of the mod- 
ern pueblo with th^ primitive Mexican race. 

I have visited several pueblos in New Mexico; everywhere 
you find a square, small or large, according to the size of the 
village; around the " plaza," the dwellings are erected close 
together, so as to present outwardly an unbroken line of wall 
to the height of two or three stories. Viewed from the inner 
square, it presents the appearance of a succession of terraces 
with doors and windows opening upon them. To go to the 
house of the governor of Tezuque, for instance, you go up a 
ladder of about ten feet. There you meet a terrace about six 
feet wide, and the door of the sleeping apartment opens on 
that terrace", which has another ladder to go higher. Togo 
to the lower apartments, you place the ladder and descend 
through a hole; these apartments have no windows, and this 
hole is the door and the chimney. This description, with 
slight variations is applicable to all the pueblo villages, how- 
ever they may differ in size, position or nature of the ground. 

Time, decay and want of proper care, are rapidly carrying 
off forever many documents of great importance, sole survivors 
of many more, which formed a part of the archives of Santa 
Pe. Papers of value, known to have existed there some years 
since, have disappeared; many others are in a perishing con- 
dition, and it is said that in 1846, Governor Armijo used up a 
large quantity of them for cartridges; and alas ! he was not 


the only one that did it. Among these documents the statis- 
tical ones are particularly numerous and satisfactory. Under 
the Spanish governments the whole military, civil and ecclesi- 
astical administration was admirably carried out, and the of- 
ficial reports are models of completeness and brevity. 

Father J. B. Francolon, lately parish priest of Santa Cruz 
de la Canada has yet in his possession a circular letter from 
one of the Superiors of the Franciscans to his brethren to gath- 
er up all the statistics, all facts worth preserving, and forward 
them yearly to the mother house at Mexico. No doubt the 
order was strictly obeyed. 

Each pueblo has a separate and independent organization of 
its own. Their officers are a Cacique or Governor, Alcalde, 
War Captain, and Fiscal Major. These officers are elected 
and receive their confirmation from the Indian agent in Santa 
F6. The Alcalde answers to our Justice of the Peace, but his 
decision is without appeal. All the pueblo disputes are set- 
tled within their own villages, without a^iy recourse to our 

The results of the impression made upon the Pneblo Indians 
by the early Spanish missionaries are quite marked, but sadly 
damaged and disfigured by the neglect of the Mexican govern- 
ment and priesthood, and the almost total absence of mission- 
aries for many years. Nevertheless, every village has its Cath- 
olic church; some of them are very old. For instance, at the 
Pueblo of Tezuque you can read on a roughly painted altar 
piece the date 1745. 

Many stories are told Of what passes in their Estuva, but all 
this is exaggeration. However, it must be acknowledged that 
they have a number of superstitious practices, and in particu- 
lar have among them many secret societies that ho one outside 
of the pueblo can ever penetrate. 

They are good tillers of the ground, and some pueblos have 
great herds of cattle and horses; their principal manufacture 
consists of pottery. The vases and other articles they make 
are all of classic and Biblical shapes. These vases are exten- 
sively used through the territory. 




It will not be amiss here to give the names of those who have 
had for centuries the civil direction of New Mexico. The old- 
est papers found in Santa Fe, bear the date of 1682, so that 
before that time it is difficult work to form the classification 
needed. If any one fi.nds the present chapter tiresome, he 
may pass it over; it will be valuable to the historical student. 

In 1595, Onate conquered the country, and subdued the In- 
dians. He was the fi.rst regularly appointed and resident gov- 
ernor of New Mexico. For a period of sixty-one years, down 
to 1656, no records can be found in Santa Fe. The reports of 
the governors during those years must be full of interest, 
showing the precise condition of the country and its inhabi- 
tants. It is highly probable that many of these reports might 
yet be fonnd in the archives of Seville and Madrid. It is a 
common belief that Otermin carried these papers with him to 
El Paso; but they cannot be found there, as I know from the 
Rev. Eamon Ortiz, for forty years parish priest of El Paso. 

In the year 1600, Pedro de Peralta was.governor, and proba- 
bly the first who used that title. During that period, accord- 
ing to Shea's Catholic Missions, the country was nearly aban- 
doned by the Spaniards. Still we find General Arguello as 
governor in 1640, and* he defeated the first great insurrection 
of the Indians. In 1650, General Concha was governor, and 
he was called 'upon to quiet the second revolt of the pueblos. 
He administered the Territory till 1656, when he was relieved 
by Enrique de Abilu y Pacheco, of .whom little is known. 
General Villanueva administered after him, and his adminis- 
tration which lasted to the year 1675, was disturbed by con- 
stant uprisings of the Indians who had found refuge wfth the 
Apaches in the Magdalena Mountains. In the year 1675, Juan 
Francisco Frecenia, who had succeeded Villanueva, had still 
greater difficulties to contend with than his predecessor. He 
left the government in the ^lands of Antonio de Otermin. 
Forced, as we saw, to return to El Paso in 1680, he endeavored 
to regain Santa Fe; but deterred by the fear of the Indians, 
be returned to El Paso and resigned his commission. In 1683, 
Bartolomeo de Estrada Ramirez was Governor and Captain- 


General. From 1684 to 1692 we fi!::d as Governor, Don Do- 
mingo Jironza Petrez de Cruzate. 

~ From 1692 to 1694, and again in 1703 , New Mexico was ruled 
by General Don Diego de Vargas Zapatoz Lujan Ponce de 
Leon, who signs himself, Marque.z de la naba de Brazinas, gob- 
ernado, capitan, restorador, c'onquisiador, a sa Casta, reconquis- 
sador y poblador castellano, por sa Majestad, etc., etc. (Marquis 
of the root of Brazinas, governor, captain-general, restaurer, 
conquej'or at his cost, reconquerer, Castilian and Oastilian 
founder for His Majesty, etc . etc.) 

Don Gaspar de Sandaval Zerda Silva y Mandoza succeeded 
Vargas in 1694; he was succeeded himself in 1697 by Don 
Pedro Rodriguez Cubero, who gave way for the second term 
of Vargas in 1703. From 1704 to 1710 the Duke of Albu- 
querque governed the Territory; but during an absence of the 
Duke of Albuquerque in 1705 we find a governor ad interim in 
the General Francisco Cuerbo y Valdez. The Marquis de la 
Penuela was another governor ad interim in 1708, and suc- 
ceeded the Duke of Albuquerque in 1710 to 1712 He was the 
first to use the word Nuevo Mexico; all the documents so far 
give the name feminui la Nueva Mexico.'*' Juan Paez de Hur- 
nado was governor for a short time in 1712, and was ad inter- 
im at different other periods. In 1712 Don Fernando de 
Alencaster Morena y Silva, etc, etc., the Viceroy of New Spain, 
administered the Territory and visited -New Mexico, when he 
confirmed, as governor, the appointee of King Phillip himself. 
Juan Ignacio Flores Magallon; who governed five years, tn- 
tering into office October, 5, 1712. In 1721, he was tried at 
Santa Fe for malfeasance in office, and condemned to pay one 
hundred dollars coists, but no effects were found wherewith to 
satisfy the bill of costs, and as the document says: " The gov- 
ernor himself non est inventus; supposed to be absent in the 
city of Mexico." 

Magallon, however, did not remain governor to the time of 
his trial; he left in 1714 .and was succeeded by General Don 
Antonio Valverde Cassio, who remained only one year, when 

* It is he who in 1710 rebuilt the ohui-ch of San Miguel, Santa Ffe, nnd 
completed it, as is clear from the inscription on the principal beam of the 
gallery. His full name and title -was: Admiral Don Jose Chacon Medina 
Solajar I Villasenor, Knight of the Order of Santiago, Governor and Cap- 
tain-General of this Kingdom of New Mexico. ' 


King Philip in October 1715, appointed Governor Martinez, 
who was qualified at Santa Pe, December 1, 1715. In 1721, 
Juan de Estrada y Austria, judge for his Majesty, was acting 
governor at the trial of Magallon. Juan Domingo de Busta- 
mente was then appointed by the King and remained in office 
to 1730. 

Gervacio Cruzate y Gongora governed from 1730 to 1736, 
and was followed for two years by Henrique do Olaride y 
Michelena. His successor did not take possession until 1739; 
this was Don Gaspar Domingo y Mendoza. In 1744, Don 
Joaquin Codallas y Eabal, was governor until 1747, when he 
was succeeded ad interim by Francisco Huemes y Horcasitas. 

The following who was a Capuchin Friar, Don Thomas Ve- 
lez, was three times governor, during the years from 1749 to 
1773, at intervals. 

In the year 1761, we find as governor, Francisco Antonio 
Maria del Valle; also at different times from 1762 to 1778 Don 
Pedro Fermin de Mendineita. In 1780 Juan Bautista de Anaya, 
and subsequently for several terms to 1800, Fernando de la ' 
Concha. His service seems to have been alternate with Fer- 
nando Chacon, who finally superseded him from 1800 to 1805. 
• Joaquin del Real Ale'ncaster, followed him to 1808. Then 
for several terms adinterim, to 1819, came Don Jose Manrique. 
Still in 1811, we see as governor with headquarters at Chihua- 
hua, Nemecio Salcedo; in 1815 Alberto Maynez, and " in 1816, 
Pedro Maria de Allande. 

Finally, from 1818 to 1822, Faoundo Melgares governed the 
Territory. He is the last, governor under the Spanish rule. 
He is represented by Pike, whom he imprisoned for being an of- 
ficer under Alencaster, as a " gentleman and gallant soldier." 

Although Facundo Melgares remained in the Territory till 
1822, the New Mexican government sent as " Commanding 
and political chief," (gefe superior politico) Don Alejo Garcia 
Conde, in the commencement of the year 1821. He was suc- 
ceeded as political chief by Antonio Viscarra, who was remov- 
ed at the end of 1823, and in 1824, Bartolome Baca took the 
gubernatorial chair to September 13, 1825; when 'Antonia 
Narbona, a Canadian by birth, took the chair, followed by 
Manuel Armijo in 1827; Jose Antonio Chavez in 1828; San- 
tiago Abreu, 1831; Francesco Sarracino, 1833; Mariano 
Chavez, 1835; Albino Perez, 1837. In January of that year. 


New Mexico, until then a Territory, waa made a department 
of the Eepublic, and Perez confirmed as governor. He was 
assassinated in Santa Fe by the Pueblo Indians on the 9th of 
August 1837, and on the Jose Gonzales, a Pu- 
eblo Indian, was proclaimed governor of New Mexico by the 
insurgents, and as such placed in possession of the " Palace," 
in Santa Fe.* Manuel Armijo. at the head of the military, 
had him executed on the 27th of January, 1838. Armijo then 
took the power in his hands, but was subsequently confirmed 
by the national government of Mexico. He remained govern- 
or till 1844, when in January of that year be was suspended 
from office by the Inspector-General, and Mariano Martinez 
acted as governor to September 18th, when Jose Chavez su- 
perceded him to December, at which epoch Manuel Armijo 
was again chosen governor. , 

Manuel Armijo is the last governor under the Mexican rule. 
He remained in office till August 18, 1846, when the United 
States troops took formal possession of New Mexico. By 
proclamation from General S. W. Kearny, who commanded 
the troops, Charles Bent was duly appointed the first U. S. 
Governor of New Mexico. 

Charles Bent was assassinated at Taos, July IT, 1847, and 
Donaciano Vigil was confirmed in his place; the following 
years to March, 1851, were without a civil governor, the Ter- 

* Gabin'o Perez deserves a passing uotioe. H^ was a native of the city 
of Mexico; a man of education, he established schools everywhere. He 
never missed church on Sunday, going as military commander to the 
Castrense, or military chapel, and as political chief to the church of San 
Francisco, no'w the Cathedral. It is kno\*i that the garrison who lived in 
the Oarita near the palace, said their Kosaiy every day. 

In order to sustain his schools, he established a commission to levy 
taxes to pay half of the salary of the teachers, the general goTernmeut 
paying the other half. This angered some men of weight in the Territory, 
and they formed a plot against him in Tans and Kio Arriba. They roused 
all the Pueblos, of the north, persuading them that the Governor desired 
all to learn the language of the Americans, in order to deliver them to the 
strangers. In a short while a thousand men were under arms, masssd at 
Santa Cruz. They marched upon Santa Fe ; Perez with twenty-five sol- 
diers went to meet them, and he had the courage to attack them at a 
place called Puertecito. Two of his officers and some soldiers fell on the 
field; Perez fied to Santa F6 with some of his officers, closely pursued by 
the rebels. They at once mounted horses, and started for Mexico on the 
large road called Camino de Vargas, but the Indians of Santo Domingo 
were awaiting them, lying in ambuscade. 


riiory being successively under the command of J. M. Wash- 
ington and John Monroe,, commandants of the Department. 

On the 3rd of March, 1851, the Organic Acb passed Con- 
gress, and the Territory came again into the hands of civil 
governors as follows : 1851-52, James Calhoun, who died 
June' 30, 1852, and Secretary John Greiner, served .by virtue 
of his office; 1852-53. "William CarrLow; 1853-57, David Mar- 
iwether; 1857-61, Abraham Rencher; 1861-66, Henry Con- 
nelly; 1866-69, Robert B. Mitchell;' 1869-71, William A. Pile; 
1871-75, Marsh Giddings who died June 3, 1875 and W. G. 
Ritch, Secretary, served bv virtue of his office; 1875-78, Sam- 
uel B. Axtell; 1878-81, Lewis Wallace; 1881-85, Lionel A. 
Sheldon; 1885, E. G. Ro&s who now occupies the "Palace" as 

This list is as cfomplete and as reliable as possible, and 
conld be found in the office of the Surveyor General, H. M. 
Atkinson when he was in office.* 

* Gen. Atkinson resigned his office in 1883, and after a long sickness 
died in October, 1886. 



Religious State of New Mexico Under the Mexican Kole. 

For years Mexico had contemplated the overthrow of the 
Spanish rule in her fair domain. Like the surge of the ocean, 
deep, low murmurs were heard on all sides, and penetrated 
far into the Provinces. The year 1810 had witnessed the first 
struggle for Independence under Hidalgo. It had been quick- 
ly repressed. But the spirit of Independence had penetrated 
the very people. Too often the proud Spaniard had made 
the Mexican feel that he was of pure Castilian blood; it could 
be borne no longer. 

In Europe, Napoleon Bonaparte, like a "bright meteor, il- 
luminating the heavens for a moment, and then passing away 
in total darkness, had run ovel Europe as over his own do- 
mains; he had set crowns over the brows of all the Bona- 
partes, and Spain did not escape. But when Napoleon had 
passed away, pining on the " Forlorn rock," amid the billows 
of the Mediterranean, the Bonapartes of Spain had quickly 
descended the steps of the throne, and the treaty of Parig bad 
restored to the Bourbons the throne of Isabella, the "Cath- 
olic," but — oh ! what ruins ! what weakness ! 

Now was the time. The Mexicans assembled in ayuntamien- 
tos, and ordered away all Spaniards from Mexican soil, and on 
September 28th, 1821, Mexico published her Declaration of 
Independence of the Spanish rule. The rising succeeded 
at once; it became general, and no Spaniard was left in the 
country unless identified with his adopted country. 

It was not a bloody revolution, although a few lives were 
lost here and there, and many a Gaballero returned penniless 
to the mother country. , 

Even before the uprising of 1821, New Mexico had felt the 
cominotions of the volcano upon which the country stood. In 
1812, Knight, Baird and Chambers brought merchandise over- 
land, but were treated as spies and their gouds were confiscat- 
ed. No serious troubles were felt, however, owing to the 
strength of the governor, Joaquin del Real Alencaster. 

One of the first acts of the new Republic was from the Leg-, 
islature, called " Provincial deputation," April 27th, 1822, 


•which issued a decree to establish public schools, as follows: 
Resolved, " That the said ayuntamientos be officially notified 
to complete the formation of primary public schools, as soon 
as possible, according to the circumstances of each communi- 

On April 5th, Francis Xavier Chaves reached Santa Fe as 
political chief, and with him a government was inaugurated. 
The overland trade with the United States virtually dates from 
the same year. 

In the year 1824, Bartolome Baca was sent as political chief, 
with the instruction of forming one State of Durango, Chihua- 
hua and New Mexico. Baca resided at Chihuahua for a short 
time. New Mexico became dissatisfied about the new arrange- 
ment, and lent an ear to overtures made by the United States 
to join the American Union. 

From its first settlement, the Province of New Mexico had 
been under the Bishop of Guadalajara. But about 1730, the 
See of Durango having been erected by the Holy See, all the 
churches of New Mexico were placed under the care of its 
Bishop, who for the first time in 1737 visited' this vast Prov- 
ince, the northern part of his diocese. From that time, for 
nearly one hundred years, hardiy any Bishop visited this 
country, till the Most Rev. Zubiria who at great peril and hard- 
ship visited the New Mexican part of his diocese. 

After the Mexican Revolution of 1821 and the expulsion of 
the Spanish Franciscans, the wants of the parishes at first so 
flourishing under the saintly Friars, were supplied by secular 
priests sent from Durango. It is easy to understand that all 
the missions could not be supplied, and that living thousands 
of miles away from the bishops of the diocese, the discipline 
must have considerably relaxed. 

Early in the eighteenth century, the erection, of a See at 
Santa Fe had been urged upon, and although a royal decree 
later and a special bull of the Pope, in 1777, ordered the 
" Erection of a College," nothing was done. 

In 1798, the Franciscans had eighteen Fathers with twenty- 
four missions; in 1805, they had increased to twenty -six Fath- 
ers and thirty missions; and when they fled the country in 
1821, there were twenty Indian Pueblos and one hundred and 
two Spanish towns or ranches, all attended by Franciscan 
Fathers, except Santa Fe, Albuquerque and Santa Cruz de la 


Canada, where secular priests were stationed. When the 
Most Rev; J. B. Lamy, D. D., reached Santa Fein 1851, he 
found twenty-five churches and forty chapels, many in a ruin- 
ous condition. The priests, all Mexicans, were very few. In 
those thirty years the Ohurch experienced" great losses in New 

Through the want of care of both the Mexican government 
and Mexican clergy, the province was destitute of educational 
establishments of any kind. 

In 1832, Rev. Juan Felipe Ortiz, was appointed Vicar for 
the Bishop of Durango, with residence at Santa Fe. 

A fact to be noticed, notwithstanding the lack of education 
during that sad period, is that on November 29th, 1835, the 
first printing press was brought to the Territory by Cura Mar- 
tinez, of Taos. The first newspaper issued on that day was 
called El Orepuscula (The Dawn.) It was issued for four 
weeks; its size was letter sheet.* 

In the meanwhile, New Mexico suffered greatly from the 
frequent revolutions and pronurnnamientos, issued in the moth- 
er country. The provincial deputation had given way as a pow- 
er; a President of the Republic was created in 1825 and 
Guadalupe Victorio was inaugurated April 1. He was suc- 
ceeded by Santa Anna in 1833,who himself was overthrown in 
1835 and a new constitution adopted. All these revolutions 
were felt in New Mexico both by the Church and the State, 
and religious as well as civil progress was retarded. 

Much dissatisfaction was felt with the new constitution and 
it culminated in a conspiracy by the Indians in 1837, against 
the governor Albino Perez, and he was assassinated -by them 
as we have seen, and the half-breed Indian Jose Gonzalez, 
proclaimed provisional governor. 

It was this dissatisfaction of a part of the people of New 
Mexico, which gave rise to the famous Texas-Santa Fe expedi- 
tion, which terminated so disastrously for the Texans. The 
expedition started from the Valley of Brush Creek, near Aus- 
tin, June 21, 1841, under General McLeod. Many of those 
who composed it Jiad nothing else in view than trading, and 
brought a great amount of merchandise. But this was not the 
view of General Lamar, the President of the " Lone Star re- 
public." Texas claimed the Rio Grande as her western bound- 

* Eitch, Blue Book. ' 


ary; many in that eastern half of New Mexico, seemed to de- 
sire their coming and throw off the galling yoke of Mexico, 
and Lamar with his associates, who kept their secret, wished 
these young men to reduce Santa Fe under the rule of Texas. 
All know how they were roughly handled by General Armijo, 
when, after untold hardships, they were met at Apache Canon, 
made prisoners, and, tied together like cattle, sent to the city 
of Mexico. It is not my purpose to write the history of the 
Texas-Santa Fe expedition. It has been well written by Geo. 
Wilkics Kendall; he is somewhat inimical to the Catholic 
church, but I think more through ignorance than malice. No 
book can give a clearer idea of General Armijo than Kendall's 
" Narrative."* 

August 18, 1846, brings us to the American occupation of 
New Mexico, by General S. W. Kearny, and to an era of pros- 
perity, both religious and political, for the Territory. 

New Mexico was so far back, on that year, that it is assert- 
ed that " adobe palaces," alone in the Territory had window 

The Church and the Territory gained nothing by the Mex- 
ican rule, and it cannot be said that the government was fav- 
orajjle to religion, and there is no doubt that many of the 
leading men enriched thfemselves out of the funds of the 

* Kendall's narrative may bo somewhat strained, but it is certain that 
on the occasion referred to Armijo showed himself a cruel and cowardly 
tyrant. When the poor prisoners were chained to march on foot to the 
city of Mexico, he ordered his cruel lieutenant to shoot down any one 
who could not keep up with the others, "and bring him the ears," and it 
was done to the letter; five of them were shot, and their ears brought as 
trophies to Armijo. 



Erection of the See op Santa Fe. 

*■ The Most Rev. J. B. Lamy, the first Archbishop of Santa 
Fe, was born on the 11th of October, 1814, atLempdes, in the 
Department of Puy-de-Dome, France. His parents were Jean 
Lamy and Marie Die. His venerable father belonging to one 
of the principal farming families in the country, was for 
years maire of Lempdes, his native parish, and gained by his 
piety, generosity and unflinching rectitude, the esteem of both 
his fellow-pitizens and the French Government. His mother 
was known as a woman of refined attainments and great piety. 

Jean Baptiste was the youngest of eleven children, of whom 
eight died in infancy, three only remained, the joy and pride 
of their truly Christian parents, two boys and a girl. Etienne, 
the oldest of the three, entered the marriage state and handed 
down the religious traditions of the family, giving to the 
Church several of his children, among whom we find the well- 
known Mother Francisca, the actual Superior of the Sisters of 
Loretto in New Mexico and the lamented Father Anthony 
Lamy, who in the vigor of his priesthood, died Feb. 6th, 1876, 
at Manzano, the victim of his untiring zeal; besides others wha 
settled in the world and became ornaments to society 

John Baptist's sister was named Margaret. Early in life 
she entered the house of the Sisters of Mercy, in her native 
land, and received the name of Soeur Marie. Later, in 1848,. 
she was sent to America with her brother who had made a. 
journey to France, and she died at New Orleans, Louisiana, 
in'1851, whither she went to accompany her holy brother late- 
ly consecrated Bisbop of Santa Fe. 

John Baptist was at an early date sent to the Royal College 
and petit seminaire of Clermont. His progress in that truly 
religious institution was remarkable, both for science and' 
piety. He followed the studies of the college with great suc- 
cess, was loved both by his superiors and companions for his 
strict obedience and kind disposition of heart, and his college 
course was a happy time for him and a blessed one for his- 
good parents. He was naturally so kind", so innocent, that his 
little companions had named him " the Lamb." 


From the college of Clermont, where he completed suooesa- 
fuUy his course of philosophy, he passed to the Grand Semi- 
nary of Montferrand to commence his theological studies. 
If he had been a good and happy boy at college, he was at 
Montferrand, no less a scrupulous and yet cheerful seminai^ian. 
The strict obedience to rule as practised in French seminaries, 
and particularly in the seminary of Montferrand, is wonder- 
ful. The young seminarian followed all the rules w'ith reli. 
gious scrupulousness. It was there, in the midst of retire- 
ment and meditation, that was developed that vocation for the 
mission which he had already felt moving his heart at college 
while reading those wonderful acts of mortification, love of 
Grod and even martyrdom of Missioners, contained monthly in 
the " Annals of the Propagation of the Faith."* It was th^re 
that he perfected those virtues which were to make of him 
not only a good priest, but an untiring missionary in the 
West, and which culminated in his rising to the highest post of 
honor, and of labor as well — in the vast Territory of New 

The pious seminarian, having completed his theological 
studies, was called successively to tonsure, minor and higher 
Orders, till finally on the Ember days of December, 1838, 
he received the priesthood at the hands of the venerable 
and ever to be remembered Mgr. Ferron, more than forty 
years of Clermont, who appointed the new priest vi- 
caire at Cfaapre, where he remained only a few months. 

In 1839, the lamented Dr. J. B. Purcell, late Archbishop of 
Cincinnatti, made a journey to France and Ireland, to supply 
with priests his new and vast diocese and increasing popula- 
tion. The burning desire for western missions, with all their 
sufferings and dangers, was revived in the heart of the young 
vicaire; his zeal could not contain itself, he saw Dr. Purcell, 
applied for admission, obtained his Ordinary's blessing, and in 
the summer of that year started for the scene of his many la- 
bors, with his new Bishop, forming one of a large party of 
priests and levites. 

Holy band which gave to America such men as Eev. de 
Goesbriand, bishop of Burlington, Rt. Rev. A. Rapp the first 

* At that time, these " Annals" were called Zettres edifiantes. 


bishop of Cleveland,* Et. Kev. P. J. Machebeuf, bishop of 
Denver, Colorado, and those Fathers, who, without receiving 
the mitre, worked so hard in the American portion of the 
Lord's Vineyard, Fathers Navarron, Gacon and Cheymol. 

Some of these have received their reward in Heaven for leav- 
ing behind all they held dear, to work without ceasing for the 
glory of God, and the salvation of souls. 

The zealous young missionary was appointed to several mis- 
sioifs in Knox, and three other counties in Ohio. For eight 
years his labors were blessed by numerous conversions in 
Gambier, Mansfield, Ashland, LondonvjUe, Wooster, Canal 
Dover, Massillon, as far as Canton and Mount Vernon, in par- 
ticular, where he resided frequently, although he made his 
home at Wooster. He was afterwards transferred to Coving- 
ton, Kentucky, where he spent three years in the midst of the 
most arduous duties. These missions were not, then, without 
much labor and danger. The settlements w«re extremely 
scattered, the means of traveling few and of primitive 
style, the rivers were bridgeless, and the people exceedingly 
poor and lonely. The Catholic church was viewed with dis- 
trust and even jealousy and anger by many non-Catholics, and 
its progress interferred with. It mattered not; the young mis- 
sionary had come not io look back, holding ,the plow, but 
to look steadily forward. 

Eleven years were thus spent for the Lord, when in 1850, 
Father Lamy was created by the Holy See, Bishop of Agathon 
in part. inf. and Vicar Apostolic of New Mexico. No time was 
to be lost, and so, with his usual energy, tlie young Bishop, 
only thirty-six years of age, repaired to Cincinnati, was con- 
secrated by Dr. Purcell on the 24th of November, 1850, and 
immediately after, set out to " conquer" his See, if I may use 
the expression. His trials at New Orleans, his shipwreck in 
the Gulf, his sickness and his hardships through Texas, and 
the difficulties he met after his arrival, justify me in calling 
him a conqueror. 

Leaving his sister at the hospital of the Sisters of Charity, 
and his niece, Mother Francisca, then a young lady, at the 
TJrsuline Convent in New Orleans, he embarked alone on a 
vessel sailing for Galveston and went safely through the dan- 

* Although these two were somewhat delayed and did not arrive imme- 


gers of the deep sea. But when nearing the Port de LaVaca, a 
terrible northern wind storm arose, and the vessel was ship- 
wrecked close to the shore. All on board were saved, but 
everything was lost; church articles, vestments, sacred vessels 
carried with much care for the missions, clothing, books— all 
were lost. 

Once, while a guest of Dr. Lamy, I espied some volumes in 
his library, that seemed to have received a thorough soaking, 
and looked like veterans battered in war, amid new recruits. 
I inquired of the venerable Archbishop the meaning of it. His 
eyes sparkled; a smile lit. up his kindly face, and he told me 
that they were fished out of thcwatersof the Gulf. With 
great kindness, and even joy at the remembrance, he describ- 
ed to me his shipwreck, his desolation at having lost every- 
thing, till spying quite near the shore one of his trunks drift- 
ing seaward, he offered a small sum of money to a young ne- 
gro boy, who swam to the trunk, and, pushing it before him 
as he swam shoreward, brought it to land. It was opened. 
Oh ! in what condition ! The books in my hands were of those 
saved in that one trunk; ail else was lost. 

Anxious to reach his destination and be at work in his im- 
mense field of labor, behold the young bishop, seated in a 
common cart, with his solitary trunk for baggage, driven by a 
Texan, starting for Santa Fe, on the then almost trackless des- 
ert, nothing daunted by the distance, the fear of wild beasts, 
rivers of brackish water, with precipitous banks, want of pro- 
visions, utter solitude, having to cross the haunts of wild In- 
dians roaming over the prairies, who where always .on the alert . 
for booty and bloodshed. 

Nearing San Antonio, the cart being about to upset, the 
bishop jumped to the ground; but alas ! he fell upon brambles 
and badly sprained his ankle. Happily, only a few miles 
away was San Antonio; there he was conveyed, and thanks be 
to God, he was received in the house of the. priest. Father 
Calvo. Near by was the residence of the worthy family of 
Dignowity, well-known throughout Texas, a family of stanch 
Catholics, and keeping up to the letter all the Catholic prac- 
tices of their old European home. There he lay for eight 
months before he could set his foot on the ground and restart 
upon his arduous journey. This worthy family were untiring 
in their attention^ to the noble guest of their pastor, and^-it 


is owing to the care of the good priest and to theirs that he got 
well al all, ajid does not still suffer from this painful accident. 
Had it not been for them he would have been, most probably, a 
cripple for the balance of his life. 

During his forced stay at the house of Father Calvo, an 
event happened which bound the Bishop still more closely to 
the family Dignowity. A son was born to them, and nothing 
would do but he must stand for the child. The Bishop as- 
sented, and amid the rejoicings of the family and neighbors, 
Charles J. Baptist Dignowity, received the Sacrament of Bap- 
tism, and the Bishop stood godfather. 

Finding' himself getting siiroDg and ansiious to take hie flight 
towards his expectant flock, he resolved to resume his journ- 
ey, and soon set out amidst the regrets and blessings of his 
friends. I pass over the untold toils, hardships and dangers 
Dr. Lamy went through during this perilous journey. He 
reached Santa Fe in the summer of 1851, after a journey of 
nine months, since his setting out from New Orleans. 

In Santa Fe, old persons relate a fact which shows their 
faith . The ground was parched for want of water, all the 
water courses and ditches were dried up, ^eep and cattle 
were in a dying condition , and poverty was staring in the face of 
the jjeople. But on the day of the Bishop's arrival, a bounti- 
ful rain fellj animate and inanimate nature was refreshed, 
grass sprung Up, and the year was one of plenty. 

Though arrived at his destination,, the Bishop soon found 
himself surrounded by great difficulties. Both the clergy and 
-the people yrere unwilling to acknowledge the new prelate's ' 
authority. The reason given by authors who have spoken of 
this fact is, they say, that before its annexation to the United 
States, New Mexico being under the jurisdiction of the Bishop 
of Durango, in Mexico, the latter, had not had time to inform . 
this distant portion of his flock of the action of the Holy See, in 
erecting the new diocese of Santa Fe. This is not quite correct, 
and the facts are contrary to it. The saintly Bishop of Durango, 
Dr. Zubiria, had been advised in time, and had immediately 
set out for New Mexico, visiting every missisn of the diocese, 
and performing everywhere his episcopal duties. But he had 
not been consulted in the dismemberment of his diocese, and 
he felt quite unwilling to quietly stand by it. The clergy bad 
another reason, they had been living at ease, twelve hundred 


miles from their Bishop, and they dreaded the presence of 
the new prelate among them; I might add, that many of them 
were utterly opposed to American rule, either civil or ecclesi- 

The indefatigable Dr. Lamy set out on horseback, with a 
solitary guide, for the city of Durango; he had an interview 
with its Bishop, and everything was settled amicably. With- 
out taking time for rest, he returned, having performed a 
journey of three thousand miles on horseback. 

In his new diocese he found but few priests, while it was 
destitute of educational establishments of any kind. The 
young bishop put his hand to the grand work of building up 
Catholicity with an energy that cannot be overpraised. His 
adventures and long, journeys over the vast plains extending 
from Kansas City to Fort "Union, plains with no inhabitants, 
then, save wild beasts and roving Indians, border on ro- 
mance. Though about nine hundred miles in extent. Dr. 
Lamy crossed these plains twelve times for the welfare of his 
vast diocese. 



Dr. Lamy 0BTAl^fs Sisters of Loretto. — Their arrival at Santa 
Fe. — Their Success. 

Bishop Lamy, ever anxious for the good of his diocese, de- 
sired to enrich it with devoted Sisters, to teach the young, 
knowing well that this was the best way to reach the people. 
Having heard of the sell-denial of Father Nerinckx's spiritual 
children, and of the severe training they had gone through, 
he concluded that they were the very ones whom Divine Provi- 
dence had designed for the laborious missions which the Holy 
See had confided to his care. He applied for a colony of Sisters, 
and his request was cheerfully griinted. Faithful to its tradi- 
tions, and to the injunctions of its founder, Loretto could not 
refuse a mission which seemed to promise nothing but hard- 
ships and privations, 

Early in the Spring of 1852, the missionary Bishop left Santa 
Fe to assist at the First Plenary Council of Baltimore^ cross- 
ing for the first time the dreary waste called with reason, the 
" American Desert."* In tue commencement of Jane 'he 
reached Bardstown, and prepaiations were soon made. But 
before returning to New Mexico, the Bishop went to New Or- 
leans, to visit his niece who was still at the Ursuline Convent, 
since his departure for Santa Fe. 

"On Sunday," says Mother Magdalen in her "Annals of Our 
Lady of Light," June 27, 1852. after Mass, the Sisters destin- 
ed for Mexico, left the Mother house of Loretto; Mother Ma- 
tilda Mills and Sisters Catherine, Mary Magdalen, Monica, 
Hilaria and Roberta. The same day they arrived at Bards- 
town, and on Thursday morning, July 1st, they reached St. 
Louis, and were kindly received by Archbishop Kenfick. In 
the meanwhile they visited the Convent of St. Ferdinand, at 
Florissant, and spent a few days with their own Sisters. As 
soon as they heard of the Bishop's return from New Orleans, 

* It was at that Council thatu petition was made by the Fathers to the 
Holy See, to have Dr. Lamy appointed titular Bishop of Santa Fe. The 
Bulls were not delayed, and the Bishop of Agathon became Bishop of 
Santa Ffe. 


they joined him at St. Louis, and on the 10th of July left 
by the steamer " Kansas," which was to convey them as 
far as Independence. Wi4h them traveled a family and 
some other' persons belonging to the Bishop's suite. 

The Sisters had accepted the mission in a true spirit of 
self-abnegation; yet they little dreamed, as the spires of 
the city receded from vieWj how soon Providence was go- 
ing to put their virtue to a test. There had already been 
some cases of cholera on board,when, on Friday, the 16th, 
at two A. M., Mother Mathilda was attacked; her sufferings 
lasted till about two o'clock in the afternoon of the same 
day, when she gave her soul into the hands of her Maker, 
after having received the sacraments of penance and Ex- 
treme Unction at the hands of the Bishop. Two hours 
later the steamer landed at Todd's Warehouse, six miles 
from Independence. In the meantime Sister Monica had 
also contracted the disease, and the landing was truly af- 
fecting, the Sisters following the couch of their dying Sis- 
ter and the coffin of their dear Mother. The inhabitants 
stood in such dread of the cholera that the Sisters were 
not allowed to enter their houses, and were therefore ob- 
liged to remain in the warehouse." 

The next morning, July 17th, three of the Sisters, with 
the Bishop and some other persons, accompanied the car- 
riage which conveyed the corpse of Mother Mathilda to its 
last resting place, in the graveyard of Independence. But 
on the way they were met by a Sheriff who had been de- 
puted by the authorities to forbid entrance into the town, 
for fear of contagion. However, the Bishop's firm atti- 
tude, and perhaps, too, compassion for the sad spectacle, 
caused this official to relent. They continued their way to 
the graveyard, and there they saw the cold earth receive 
into its bosom the remains of her whom they had loved and 

" The Bishop," continues Mother Magdalen, quoted by 
Bishop Maes, " now took the three Sisters, Catherine, Hi- 
laria and Boberta, to the town and left them there, Vhilst 
Sister Magdalen remained in the warehouse with Sister 
Monica. But on the night of the following Monday, July 
18th, Sister Magdalen herself was attacked with the chol- 


era, and made what she believed to be her last confession. 
The place being ill-suited for Jadies, especially religious 
ones, sick unto death; the Bishop, unable to make better 
arrangements, had the two dying sisters removed to tents 
about two miles from the town. The poor Sisters were 
much better oflf than in the warehouse, although they had 
many inconveniences to bear, and had nothing but the 
canvas tent to screen them from the heat of July." 

After a few days Sister Magdalen began to recover. On 
Sunday, July 23d, the three Sisters came from Independ- 
ence, and heard mass said ^by Bishop Lamy in a tent. It 
was impossible for Sister Monica to proceed any further, 
her recovery being doubtful, and in spite of her great de- 
sire to pursue the journey to New Mexico, she returned to 
Independence until her health should be sufficiently re- 
stored to return to the convent at Loretto. As Sister Mag- 
dalen could travel in a carriage, although very weak, they 
left Independence on Saturday, July 31st, to go into camp 
some four miles distant, where the Bishop and part of his 
suite (tor the others were waiting at Willow Springs) had 
already encamped. There the Sisters went to confession, 
and the next iporning received holy communion at the 
hands of the Bishop. 

After the death of Mother Mathilda, Sister Magdalen 
was chosen to fill the office of Superior, and this election 
was promptly approved and confirmed at Loretto. Thus 
was Mother Magdalen chosen in the designs of Provi- 
dence to guide this young colony-of Sisters to Santa Fe; 
to protect them against all the blasts of trials and difficul- 
ties; to build for then) the material and spiritual edifice of 
their order in Santa Fe; to create schools and academies 
to the honor of Our Lady of Light, the finest edifice in 
America, a chapel which can compare advantageously with 
any of the kind, even in Europe — but more about it later. 
Dear Mother Magdalen, after thirty years of untold toils 
and privations, has been stricken down by palsy, but her 
head and her heart are as warm and as sound as ever, and 
although she gave up the charge of the flourishing commu- 
nity into the hands of another self. Mother Francisca Lamy, 
she is still the guiding spirit of the institution — a broken 


flower, but keeping all the perfume of virtues and science 
■which animated her active life. 

On the evening of August 1st they reached Willow 
Springs, a fine watering place a fe\y miles from Westport, 
and there found the other party ready to start. So they 
lost no time, and started all together; but they had pro- 
ceeded only a few miles when one of the wagons broke 
down, and there they were obliged to camp in order to re- 
pair the wagon. 

That night was a terrible one for the travelers. A fear- 
ful storm arose; the wind blew with violence; the rain fell 
in-torrenta; the tents could not be pitched, and all, tha 
Sisters and other liEidies of the party, had to remain in the 
wagons and prptect themselves as well as they could against 
the beating storm. It lasted the whole night, and the 
warring elements seemed to bid each other defiance. 
Mother Magdalen, who records the fact, says that the Sis- 
ters were much terrified at the fury of the storm, which at 
times seemed ready to shatter to pieces their frail tenement, 
and they sought protection in prayer. 

The Bishop, regardless of the storm, was everywhere, 
with his usual and untiring energy, now encouraging the 
frightened Sisters, then giving directions to the muleteers, 
saving the party from another dreaded accident, the stam- 
pede of the animals; visiting the traveling party, never 
taking any rest until every one was as comfortable as pos- 
sible, thus acting the part of a father with all. 

Some time was spent the next day to repair damages. 
On the following Sunday, the 8th, the Bishop said mass 
near an Indian hut on the banks of the Hundred-and-Ten 
creek. Thence they passed Burlingame, and on the eve of 
the Assumption reached Council Grove. All confessed 
that evening, and on the next morning received commun- 
ion at the hand of the Bishop. The Sisters,, according to 
their rules, renewed their vows at the time of mass. The 
next day the march was resumed, and no mass was said 
until they reached Pawnee Fork, on the spot where now 
stands the town of Larned, at the junction of the Pawnee 
river and the Arkansas. For the first time, buffaloes were 
killed by the party, and fresh meat enjoyed. 


Eesuming their march, on the 7th of iSeptem|)er they 
passed the then existing Fort Atkinson, and encamped 
some miles beyond, but still in Kansas, when a parly of 
Indian warriors four jjiuadred strong fell upon them and 
surrounded them. All were terrified, particularly the la- 
dies. This was the Indians' hunting grQund, and when- 
ever they could do so with impunity, they would attack 
caravans. On this occasion they seemed peaceable; the 
Bishop was even enabled to baptize the child of & captive 
Mexican woman. Still as their intentions were not known, 
and the Indian is often treacherous, the Bishop thought 
prudent not to make any move, hoping they would retire; 
but as they seemed disposed to remain, he ordered his 
company to march in the evening, and the caravan trav- 
eled all night, as the Indians do not generally make their 
attacks in the dark. 

The Arkansas was crossed, and on Sunday, 12th of Sep- 
tember, Cimarron was -reached. On the 14th Very Rev. 
P. J. Machebeuf*, then Vicar- General, with a party of 
men and animals, met the caravan near Red Biver. I need 
not say how agreeable and affecting was that meeting, and 
the assistance it brought. Near Fort Union they were sup- 
plied with fresh meat and fresh bread, a most welcome 
food after the hard tack of the journey, which was fre- 
quently rationed. Las Vegas was reached on the 18th. 
This was the first Mexican town reached. The next morn- 
ing the' Bishop said mass in a private dwelling, not far 
from the town. There he stopped to rest, and sent Father 
Machebeuf with the Sisters to what was then called the 
Bishop's rancho or farm, a little over fifteen miles from 
Santa Fe. This rancho was subsequently sold to Hon. F. 
Manyanarez, Member of Congress, and the A. T. & S. F. 
has established there a station called after the Archbishop. 
To show the zeal of the Bishop for the spiritual welfare of 
those under liis care, I must say that during the journey 
he said mass and preached every Sunday but one, when it 

*Bt. Eev. P. J. Machebeuf, now Vioar Apostolic of Colorado, had 
followed his friend Bishop Lamy to his western diocese, and had been 
appointed Yicar-General. He also had labored in Ohio with great 


was absolutely impossible; but prayers were said in com- 

The Bishop set out from Las Vegas on Wednesday, and 
on Thursday, 23d of September, quietly entered his epis- 
copal city, to prepare the way for the coming caravan, en- 
tirely unmindful of his own comforts. On Sunday, 26th, 
the party left the ranch and started for Santa Fe, where 
they arrived at four p. m. The people, led by Father Ortiz*' 
and other Mexican priests, went several miles to meet 
them. As they approached the city, the crowd increased 
so much that the carriages could scarcely pass through the 
streets of the ancient metropolis. Triumphal arches had 
been erected, and the bells of the different churches were 
pealing. They were received at the door of the cathedral, 
presented with holy water, and led to the foot of the altar. 
The Te Deum was sung, accompanied by Mexican mujic, 
violin, guitars, etc., and the ceremony terminated with the 
episcopal blessing. Thence the Sisters were conducted by 
the Bishop, Vicar-General and clergy to the house pre- 
pared for them, and the priests who had accompanied the 
party were lodged in the house of the Bishop, and thus 
ended this long and painful journey, full of accidents and 
dangers. All felt glad at being finally at home in Santa 

" The Sisters," continues Mother Magdalen, " did not 
open school immediately, as they needed some time to ap- 
ply themselves to the study of the language of the' country, 
Spanish. In November they received their first boarders, 
fwo children who had lost their mother. When these were 
admitted the Bishop remarked to Mother Magdalen; ' It is 
well to begin with an act of charity.' The Sisters, how- 
ever, were amply rewarded, for the two children were bap- 
tized the next Christmas, in the convent chapel, and when 
their father withdrew them from school he paid for their 
tuition, whereas the teachers had not expected to receive a 

*Pather Juan Felipe Ortiz had been Vioar-General for New Mexico 
nndei Bishop Svbiria of Durango, and was then residing at the Ca- 



" The school opened iu January, 1853, with ten board- 
ers and three day scholars, but at the close of August the 
number had increased to twenty boarders and twenty-two 
day scholars. 

" The house which the Sisters occupied had been ceded 
to them by Bishop Lamy, who lived in ths same building, 
but in another square or 'plazita entirely separated from 
them. As their house was now too small, he, in October, 
1853, gave up the whole to them, and rented a house for 

Afterwards the Sisters obtained, on very reasonable 
terms, a piece of property in a secluded part of the city, 
and containing the best looking house in town, and called 
La Gasa Americana, the American house, becabse it had a 
•shingle roof, all the other roofs in town being flat and cov- 
ered with earth. An orchard and grounds were laid out, 
and -the Sisters began to occupy their new home in Sep- 
tember, 1855. Since then the new province has prospered 
beyond all humaa expectations, and besides the -house of 
Santa which is the novitiate, and which has been called 
the Convent of Our Lady of Light, it possesses the follow- 
ing houses: The Convent of the Annunciation, in Mora, 
was established in 1854:, whilst Father J. B. Salpointe, 
now Archbishop of Santa Fe, was parish priest at that 
place. In 1853 the Convent of St. Joseph was established 
in Taos under the care of the Rev. Gabriel Ussel, the par- 
ish priest of Taos. The Convent of Our Lady of Guada- 
lupe was first established in Albuquerque in 1866, but that 
mission was given up in 1869. In the same year was es- 
tablished the Convent of the Immaculate Conception, iji 
Las Vegas. In 1870 the Visitation Academy was estab- 
lished at Loa Cruces, through the generosity of the Kt. 
Eev. J. B. Salpointe, then Vicar Apostolic of Arizona, in 
whose diocese Las Cruces was included. The Convetit of 
Our Lady of the Sacred Heart was established in 1875 in 
Bernalillo. Later, in 1879, the Convent of Mount Carmel 
was established in Socorro. 

In 1864 the Convent and Academy of Denver was estab- 
lished. The zealous and untiring Father Machebeuf, the 
pastor of that rising city, and now its worthy Bishop, came 


himself to Santa Fe, and brought a colony of Sisters to 
the capital of Colorado. Since then the novitiate of Santa 
Fe, being unable to supply them with a sufficient number 
of Sisters, they are supplied from Loretto, and have them- 
selves formed missions at Pueblo, Conejos and elsewhere, 
spreading everywhere the light of the knowledge of God 
and the sweet odor of the most exalted virtues. 

Before closing this subject, I could not pass over in silence 
the fine chapel and the Academy of Our Lady of Light, 
built entirely by the eriergy of Mother Magdalen and the 
self-abnegation of the Sisters, who many times deprived 
themselves of the necessary wants of life, in order to be 
able to erect a suitable temple to the Almighty and an 
Academy worthy of the high renown of the sister institu- 
tion of Our Lady of Light. The chapel, comm enced in 
1873, is built of stone, with veins and arches of the purest 
Gothic style, constructed entirely of native material. This 
chapel cost thirtj- thousand dollars, and is a monument to 
the devotion of all interested in that great enterprise — a 
chapel which can compare favorably with the finest in the 
largest cities of the land. The Academy was commenced 
in the spring of 1880. 

In May, 1881, the first symptoms of a rheu nlatic affec- 
tion manifested themselves in Mother Magda ien, but she 
was heedless of the pains, confident that her hitherto ro- 
bust constitution would eventually resist the disease; but 
on the 28th of August she was obliged to keep her be 
which she has been unable to leave since, leaving ' 
younger hands the active direction of the Convent and No- 
vitiate, and Sister Francisca was appointed Mother; but 
still Mother Magdalen remains, by her piety and business 
qualities, as dear as ever to the good Sisters. 


Bishop Lamy goes jo Eome. — He beings with him, on his 


Ever anxious for the good of his diocese, the Bishop 
took no rest. One year was spent in correcting abuses 
which had crept, unconsciously as it were, into the church 
during the period of the Mexican rule, which — Grod be 
praised for it — was of short duration. The MexicanG-ov- 
ernment did not strictly speaking persecute the church, 
but its want of care for both church and state was unpar- 
donable, and, alas ! that we must say" it, the clergy did not 
rise much above the governing powers in striving to pro- 
mote the glory of God and procure the salvation of souls. 
Dr. Lamy, ably seconded by his Vicar General and bosom 
friend. Father Machebeuf, went everywhere to see for 
himself, and set to work to correct abuses, to establish 
schools, to form religious associations ; and thus they were 
employed during the winter and spring of 1853. Then it 
was time for Dr. Lamy to visit Kome to obtain the approval 
and the blessing of the Holy See upon his work, and also 
to obtain clergy a more careful of the work of planting faith 
and virtues in the hearts of the people than were those 
priests who for years had led their flocks in pastures of 
their own choice, but reproved of God. In the fall of 1853 
the energetic young Bishop set out from Santa Fe with a 
caravan to cross those formidable plains, the American 
Desert, the home of the Indian and coyote — a desert ex- 
tending nearly nine hundred miles in breadth, from New 
Mexico to the Missouri river. He rested only a short while 
at St. Louis, Cincinnati and Bardstown, from whence -he 
made a flying visit to Loretto to give news of the saintly 
colony of Santa I^e and to petition for more Sisters. This 
time also his- request was readily granted, and arrange- 
ments were made to start for Santa Fe the following 
spring. The Bishop, losing no time, embarked at New 
York, soon reached France, and at once visited Monsignor 


Ferxon, the old bishop of Clermont, who had ordained him 
priest and had blessed his vocation to the missions of Cin- 
cinnati. From him also he received warm and fair prom- 
ises to permit young apostles from his diocese to help him 
in his missions of New Mexico. The young clergy were 
anxious to seer him and to converse with him. The levites 
in the Seminary were favored with his presence, and their 
vocation matured more and more in their hearts. 

In the meanwhile, the Bishop, having paid a flying visit 
to his brother Etienne and other immediate relatives, set 
out for Rome, where he was kindly received by Pius IX 
and Cardinal Barnabo, Prefect of the Propaganda. He 
received great praise and encouragement, and also direc- 
tion from the Holy 3ee. He soon afterward left Eome, 
visiting several renowned cities on his route, and early In 
the spring of 1854, reached the city of*Clermoht. A num- 
ber of young levites presented themselves to him, and 
to him expressed their willingness to cross the ocean and 
work under his careful direction. Without , regrets they 
were willing to leave behind them the fair shores of their 
beloved France to come to the almost desolate part of the 
field of the father of family. No hope of reward crossed 
their minds, but the thoughts of the future buoyed up their 
spirits. If they ever reflected over the privations they 
were to -endure, they cast these thoughts far away, placing 
such prospects in the hands of God. 

Among the saintly men who heard the voice of God in 
their hearts were the Reverends Taladrid, a priest from 
Madrid, Spain, whom the Bishop had met in Rome ; Mar- 
tin of. the diocese of St. Flour, France, an old missionary 
in Africa, met also at Rome ; Anthony Galiard, from Cler- 
mont, who stayed three years and then returned to France, 
where he soon died ; Stephen Abel of Clermont, who sub- 
sequently died parish priest of Moro ; Peter Eguillon, the 
actual Vicar-General of Santa Fe and parish priest of the 
cathed£al, also a priest from the diocese of Clermont. 

Among the Seminarians were the Reverend Joseph Gue- 
rin, yrho died recently, parish priest of Mora. He was then 
deacon-, and was ordained priest on the 23d of December 
of the past year, at Santa Fe, by Bishop Lamy; Eugene 


Pallet, parish priest of Belen, then a Subdeaconi and X. 
Vaure, a cleric in minor orders, who became sick with dys- 
entery on the plains of Kansas, and died on the day of 
their arrival at Santa Fe. 

Forming the caravan were also the Eeverend Eulogio 
Ortiz, a priest from New Mexico, who had accompanied 
the Bishop to Europe ; Messrs. Jesus M. Ortiz and Floren- 
cio Gonzalez, who had been sent previously to France for a 
course in the Seminary of Clermont; an Irish family named 
Covington; and Mr; Maearthy, a lawyer, who acted as 
major domo for the Bishop on the journey. 

Dr. Lamy and his band of priests and levites arrived at 
Louisville, Kentucky, towards the end of May, 1854. 
Without going to Loretto, they reached Ctncinnati , thence 
by boat to St. Louis, and in the summer arrived at Kansas 
■City and Westport, being thence directed to camp at Willow 
Spring, a romantic spot,with a fine spring pf icy water gush- 
ing from under a huge boulder surrounded by trees, particu- 
larly willows of good size, with ah abundance of grass for 
the animals. There they remained for six. weeks waiting 
for the colony of Sisters who were to come and join them. 
In this, however, the Bishop was disappointed, as the Sis- 
ters were unable to send any of their number to the mis- 
sions of New Mexico. The .Bishop had his hands full buy- 
ing animals, wagons and provisions, and perfecting all ar- 
rangements for" a speedy departure. 

During their stay at, Willow Spring a f serious accident 
happened to Father Equillon, which threatened to destroy 
his right hand forever, and hinder his holy zeal for the 
missions. While waiting for the arrival of the Bishop, who 
was away, the party in camp had more than once been 
obliged to supply their larder by~ hunting for game, which 
was then abundant in Kansas. Father Equillon, with the 
rest, strove to do his best for the common good. But, 
"alas ! one day, after returning from a successful hunt, 
while putting his gun into the Vagon, it slipped through 
an opening in the bed, exploded, and the unfortunate 
priest received the entire discharge in his right hand. 

Another incident worthy of remark, which happened 
during their stay at Willow ■ Spring, can throw a ray of 


light upon the life of the early missionaries in the wild 
West. One day they were surprised by the arrival in the 
camp of a lonely stranger, with beard unshaven, wearing a 
summer linen coat and carrying a gun upon his shoulder^ 
The stranger was tall and muscular, and there is no deny- 
ing that they felt ill at ease. He spoke French to them, 
and they were glad lo find an American with whom they 
could converse. He asked them who they were, whi'her 
they were going, why they were camping there instead of 
being on their journey while the weather was fine. He 
asked them many more questions, and thus rendered them 
more uneasy. They told him all. He finally smiled and 
told them he was acquainted with their Bishop. " Who 
are you," they said. Smiling still more, he said, " I am 
Bishop Miege^ the Vicar Apostolic of these Territories." 
Oh ! the joy then !' the petition for blessings ! the kissing 
of the ring ! -Bishop Miege at that time was purely a mis- 
sionary bishop, without any fixed residence, for he did not 
settle in Leavenworth till the 15th of August, 1855. He 
was on his way from the Osage Mission to that of the Pot- 
tawattomies, and having heard of our party, had l6ft the 
ambulance with its solitary driver to go to camp, while he 
made a little turn to see the young levites and cheer them 
in their dreary solitude. Of course he had no other means 
. to provide for his evening meal than his gun. Thence the 
surprise of the party at seeing a Bishop in that accoutre- 
ment and engaged in such a work. 

Hardly had Bishop Lamy arrived at Willow Spring, 
after completing his preparations, and being sure that the 
Sisters could not come, than,- although late in the after- 
noon, he resolved to move the camp. An order was given 
to that effect. All was bustle in the camp. Muleteers 
gathered their animals and hitched them to the wagons,, 
and after a short delay all together took the broad road 
towards Santa Fe, their destination. But they had pro- 
ceeded but a short "distance when one of their wagons 
broke down, and there they were obliged to stop without 
water to allow the repairing. 

The caravan consisted of four wagons and three car- 
riages, and strange to say, as soon as they had left Willow 


Springs, Father Equillon, who was very sick, and whose 
hand had been in such a terrible condition that the physi- 
cians had nearly resolved to amputate it, felt at once bet- 
ter. He had refused to stay behind in Kansas City, 
preferring, should such be the ease, to die going forward 
to his mission, than to die among strangers, far away from 
all he held dear. So, a mattress was brought, and the 
future Vicar-General was stretched upon it in a carriage, 
as a victim for the sacrifice. They left Willow Springs on 
the 18th of September, 1854. 

I will not follow the travelers in that dreary journey 
over the plains, so often described by writers of those 
times. They suffered greatly for want of provisions, much 
of what they had having spoiled, and also from want of 
water, and later in the season from snow and from cold 
winds which sweep so sharply upon the bare plains of 
Kansas and Colorado. They had no especial adventures 
during the journey. At Fort Union the doctor of the fort, 
a good Catholic, sent them a wagonful of fresh bread, and 
the blessings of the whole party were showered upon his 
head. They were now nearer home; their hearts were 
elated, and their hopes higher. Finally they entered 
Santa Fe at four o'clock in the afternoon, on the 15th of 
November, 1854, having spent two months in crossing the 
plains. On that evening young Vaure died at ten o'clock, ■ 
and the next day the young travelers laid their late com- 
panion in his grave. It was sad for them to thus lose their 
companion after the young cleric had reached the scene of 
his labors. But God was satisfied with his good will, and 
took him to his reward before those who had already stood 
the brunt of the day and the heat. The priests were soon 
placed on missions, and the levites, after completing their 
theological studies, followed, and have worked most faith- 
fully for years. 



Neoessitt fob More ScnooLs — Arkival of the Chbistias 

The Vicar- General, P. J. Machebenf, had until now re- 
sided in Sante Fe ; but at this time it was found necessary 
to take possession of Albuquerque, and he was sent there. 
In January, 1854, he was given Eev. J. Guerin, a newly- 
ordained priest, for an assistant. They experienced mucb 
difficulty in their office, but thanks to the activity and: 
kindness of Father Machebeuf , he had there a very suc- 
cessful pastorate; performing at the same time the duties 
of Vicar-General. The greatest trouble for the young" 
Bishop and his faithful Vicar, was the great necessity of 
schools. The girls were provided for in Santa Fe, but thfr 
boys! oh, in what ignorance were they growing! Some- 
thing must be done to remedy the evil. 

Schools had been established in New Mexico by the earljr 
missionaries among the descendants of the first Spanish 
conquerors and the children of the converted Pueblo Indi- 
ans. It was the holy practice of the Franciscans to estab- 
lish schools along side of the churches they erected. But,, 
alas! during the Mexican rule, every vestige of s,chool hacl 
vanished; churches and school-houses were in a crumbling: 
state, and ignorance reigned in the land. It is sad to re- 
late all this, but it is the truth. This could not last under 
the rule of the active and zealous Dr. Lamy. Something 
must be done. He cast his eyes upon the learned and pi- 
ous Congregation of the Christian Brothers. He received 
some fair promises from them. He s€t about to prepare 
for them, without neglecting a single one of his many; 
episcopal duties. 

There was then in existence on the plaza of Santa ¥£],, 
the church of the Castrense, as has been mentioned al- 
ready before. This church, which had been used by the. 
goyernors and troops of SpaiOi as well as those of Mexico»^ 
had been closed to public worship since 1846. It had beea. 


for a long time the only church opened in Santa Fe, par- 
ticularly under the Mexican rule. But Father T. J. Ortiz, 
in 1846, after the annexation to the United States, opened 
the. Church, now Cathedral,, of Sin Francisco, and it be- 
came the parish church. 

The Bishop obtained from, the Holy See permission to 
sell the Yglesia Gastrense, and in the year 1859 he conveyed 
it in a legal form to Don Simon Delgado ' and his mother, 
Dofla Maria de la Luy Baca de Delgado, for the consider- 
ation of one thousand dollars and a parcel of land with 
building thereon, adjoining the old church of San Miguel. 
The land had a frontage of three hundred and twenty-eight 
feet on what afterwards became College street, and six 
■hundred and twenty four feet upon the Camino Real, or 
Alto street. Having by this transaction secured a spacious 
house, well adapted by its situatio^i for a college, his next 
step was to procure the necessary teachers. 

In the summer of 1858, the Very Rev. Peter Equillon, 
who had succeeded as Vicar-General to the Very Eev. P. 
J. Machebeuf, then in Arizona, was sent to France with 
orders to treat with the Superior-General of the Christian 
Brothers, the venerable Brother Philip, on the subject. 
He at first met with very little encouragement, but finally, 
through the influence of Brother Arteme, visitoT to the dis- 
trict of Clermont, several brothers were found: willing, with 
their superior's permission, to go on the far-distant mis- 
sion. The brothers were appointed by Brother Arteme, 
subject to the Superior's approval. He chose the follow- 
ing: Brothers Hilarien, Director of the schools at Billom; 
Gondulph, Director of that at Bamagnat ; Geramius, ' 
teacher cf the school of the Clermont Cathedral, and Gal- 
mier-Joseph, teacher in the Orphanage of that city. They 
set out in the summer of 1859 with Father Equillon and 
nine priests and ecclesiastics. Without accident they ar- 
rived in New York, where they were given another com- 
panion in Brother Optatien,^ belonging to the Second 
Street Community. Making haste, they reached Kansas 
City, then the outpost of civilization. They crossed the 
plains in caravans, exposed to every kind of danger, and,^ 
after untold wants and sufferings, reached Santa Fe on 
the 27th day of October, 1859. 


The first night after their arrival, they were the guests 
of the good Bishop. The next day they took possession of 
the house prepared for them, and slept on mattresses laid 
on the ground, for the house had no floor. Bepairs were 
commenced at once, and in the meanwhile they took their 
meals at the Bishpp's house. On All Soul's Day they en- 
tered their new home, " finding," says Brother Hilarien, 
"the four walls." To furnish the apartment they were 
presented with five chairs, five mattresses, five blankets, 
two tables, a few benches and some old carpets. Board- 
ers were received on the 9th of November, 1859. 

Brother Hilarien was unwilling to assume the responsi- 
bility of debts in establishing a boarding school, as furni- 
ture and almost all kinds of provisions were of exorbitant 
price, owing to the remoteness of Santa Fe from all com- 
mercial centers, and also owing to the failure of crops in 
that year. The Bishop, with his ordinary kindness, as- 
sumed all the responsibility, paying the five Brothers eight 
hundred dollars per annum; furnishing them with board, 
lodging, washing of linen, etc. In the written contract 
the Brothers were to have for breakfast, bread, meat and 
cofl'ee; for dinner, bread, meat vegetables, dessert and oc- 
casionally wine. The Brothers, on their side, were to 
work for the Bishop as if it were on their own account, 
and this agreement was made for two years. 

The day school was opened December 22, 1859. The 
number of day scholars varied from one hundred and fifty 
to two hundred and fifty from 1859 to 1869. The boarders 
for the first year were thirty; thus the number reached, 
with slight variations, as far als fifty, to 1868. 

Brother Hilarien was recalled February 7, 1862, and was 
succeeded by Brother Gondolph. The house, owing to the 
good management of Brother Hilarien, was without debts; 
even a small sum of money was left, with provisions, books, 
stationery, etc., laid up for future use. 

In 1863, Brother Gondolph had an adobe class-room put 
up, erected porticos around the inner court, repaired the 
roofs of the houses, and laid a floor in San Miguel Church. 
Brother Geramius was appointed' to succeed him Septem- 
ber 10, 1867. Under Brother Geramius the boarding school 


of San Miguel took the title of San Miguel College. His 
administration was a great success. But in June 1, 1869, 
Brother Geramius was sent to Quito, South America, where 
he is still working with great zeal. He was succeeded by 
Brother Domitian to November 1, 1870, when Brother Bo- 
tulph, the present incumbent, was Sent as Superior of the 
House of Santa Fe and Yisitor of Kew Mexico. 

It was under the wise direction of Brother Botulph that 
the College took rapid strides, and became an establish- 
ment of much not4 in the West. In 1875 it became appar- 
ent that, owing to the unsafe condition of the roofs and 
the great number of scholars, a_new building was abso- 
lutely needed. So, after consulting with the Superior- 
General, and obtaining the approval of the Bishop, the 
untiring Brother went to work, collecting not only in 
Santa Pe but through the Territory, at some places meet- 
ing with success, at others with nothing but rebuffs. Every 
locality wished the College to be built there, or would not 
help in the good work. In Santa Fe Brothers Botulph, 
Baldwin and Morinus 'canvassed the city and met with 
quite a success, the amount so collected being the sum of 
five thousand dollars, the Bt. Bev. Bishop heading the list 
with five hundred dollars. The clergy and the citizens of 
Santa Fe were indeed very liberal, without passing by the 
mite of the poor, which helped to raise the above-men- 
tioned sum. 

Early in 1878 a formal application was made to the Su- 
periors; the desired answer came by a cablegram. The 
contract was awarded Messrs. Monnier & Coullondon. The 
work of tearing down th6 houses fronting on College street 
began on April 1, 1878, and was completed in four days. 
On the 11th of April the corner-stone was laid with little 
ceremony, but great rejoicings in the College. The work 
went on briskly; masons, carpenters and others industri- 
ously plied their trades, and the classes and dormitories of 
the new College were occupied by the scholars in Novem- 
ber, 1879. The cost of the building, all told, was nineteen 
thousand nine hundred and ten dollars. 

The College has continued to prosper, and new addi- 
tions became necessary. The number of boarders for the 


year 1883 was ninety-four, and that number was increased 
in the two following years. In the year 1879 there were 
twenty-two Pueblo Indians attending school in a separate 
department of the College. I have examined them myself, 
and, like many others who had visited them, was aston- 
ished at their remarkable proficiency in reading and writ- 
ing English and Spanish. Their progress in arithmetic 
was astonishing. I mention this because it is thought and 
said by many who know not what they say that the Indian 
is sluggish and slow in learning, whereas the reverse is the 
case, and this can be proved conclusively by every Catholic 
school established in pueblos throughout the Territory. 

If, instead of insisting on sending these boys and girls 
to Carlisle and Albuquerque, under the special direction 
of Presbyterians and Methodists, where they are made to 
forget their faith, the Government'would help the Church 
to form schools in every pueblo, the race would in a short 
time possess the requirements of civilization. I wi^ men- 
tion one case in point, that of the Pueblo of Tezuque, 
where Father Equillon, V. G. , had kept a teacher at his 
own expense for two years, against the commands and 
threats of the pliant tools who abuse their little authority. 
The children in so short a time could spell and read well 
the Spanish second and third books. 

The venture made at Santa Fe was not supported by 
the Government, notwithstanding the fairest promises, 
and all the expensesof board, tuition, washing, etc., etc., 
for twenty-two children, for one year, fell heavily upon the 
shoulders of the Most Eev. Archbishop and the Col- 
lege of San Miguel. Promises were made by the late 
Father Brouillet; the Very Eev. Father Defouri had a me- 
morial sent to Congress for an appropriation. All was 
useless. Commissioner Price writing that he could not enter- 
tain the idea, and for years the children were rounded up 
for the benefit of anti-Catholic institutions, by the very 
ones who should have protected both their faith and their 
temporal affairs. 

Since their establishment in Santa Fe, the good Broth- 
ers have established several schools through the Territory. 
As early as 1864, Eev. Gabriel Ussel, then Pastor of Taos, 


visiting Prance, was authorized by the Bishop to bring 
priests and Brothers for the missions of New Mexico. It 
was desirable to open at once two houses, one in Taos and 
the other in Mora. He came back with a simple promise 
from Brother Facile, the assistant, that as soon as circum- 
stances would permit, arrangements would be made for 
the opening of those schools. Several months afterwards 
four Brothers were sent for the purpose. They came under 
the conduct of Brother Gondulph, who had gone East to 
meet them. After a toilsome journey over the plains, they 
reached Santa Fe August 14, 1865, and were heartily wel- 
comed by their Brothers in religion as laborers in the same 
field. Owing to that accession, both schools were opened 
at once; Brother Domitian being appointed Director of 
the school of Mora, and Brother Osmund of that of Taos. 
Many difficulties obliged the Brothers to close this latter 
school in the year 1867; that of Mora still continued doing 
good for years, although much cramped owing to the hard 
times and to the monetary crisis of the few past years, and 
finally closed in September, 1884. 

Later, in 1872, was founded the Brothers' school at 
Bernalillo, and Brother Galmier-Joseph was appointed its 
first Director. It has continued to prosper under the 
directorship of Brother Gabriel, and the fostering care of 
the good pastor of Bernalillo, Father Stephen Parisis, and 
promises to have a bright future in a few years. Thus 
boys were given a splendid chance for learning, of which 
the youth of many other localities are deprived. It is only 
just to record here that both the Sisters' and Brothers' es- 
tablishments in Bernalillo owe a great debt of gratitude to 
the late Don Leandro Perea and his family. 

Saint Michael's College, after many vicissitudes, has 
continued to grow, the number of boarders has increased 
to hundreds, and, under the wise supervision of Brother 
Botulph, now for years at its head, every day has witnessed 
some improvement.* Thus it has done good for years; thus 
many who claim Saint Michael as their Alma Mater have 
been heard in the halls of our Legislature ; others are 
prominent in different callings, and others, though follow- 

*A $;L5,000 addition is now building. 


ing humbler vocations, have honored the Territory by their 
integrity and staunch virtues. 

On the 29th of October, 1«84, the Silver Jubilee ol the 
College was celebrated with great pomp. Extensive prep- 
arations had been made in order to render the occasion as 
solemn as possible. The day was clear and cool, and early 
after the morning devotions the College band discoursed 
sweet music, and soon after the bell of old San Miguel of 
three centuries ago was heard tolling the people to mass. 
The Eight Reverend J. B. Salpointe, then Coadjutor of 
Santa Fe, celebrated a pontifical mass, as-<isted by the, 
Reverends Roily "and Gatignol, as deacon and aubdeacon, 
Mr. Jennings acting as master of the ceremonies, while on 
a throne prepared for the occasion, was his Grace the Most 
Reverend Archbishop, assisted by the Very Reverend Fath- 
ers Equillon and Defouri. At the gospel, his Grace left 
the throne and advancing to the rail of the sanctuary, de- 
livered a feeling exhortation to tbe numerous congregation 
present. He recalled with happiness the great good done . 
in the Diocese by the Christian Brothers since their estab- 
lishment at Saint Michael twenty-five years ago. The heart 
of the good Father expanded at thus beholding his spiritual 
children growing up under his eyes and spreading knowl- 
edge and virtue around them. He terminated by wishing 
for the Brothers a continued increase of all spiritual and 
temporal blessings. 

The mass was sung beautifully by the College orchestra, . 
made up of the pupils, under the direction of the Brothers. 

In the evening, after the dinner, which was had at four 
o'clock (being the very hour at which the Brothers took 
their first modest meal in Santa Fe twenty five years be- 
fore), a grand display of fire-works took place around the 
College under the direction of Brother Amian. The College 
band played sonie stirring selections, the whole College 
was illuminated to the very roof, while rocket after rccket 
was sent skyward only to explode in mid air and fall around 
like many beautiful stars, to the great delight and repeated 
applause of the thousands who assembled there to witness 
the display. All went weir ; the whole affair was a great 
success, and no one forgot the good Brothers in the heart~ 
felt praise they gave. 



Missions in Arizona. 

There was no rest for the yet young Bishop of Santa Fe. 
In the year 1859 the missions of Arizona were annexed by 
the Holy See to the diocese of Santa Fe. Immedi- 
ately his Vicar-General, the Eev. J. P. Machebeuf, was 
«eat to take possession of them, calling at the same 
time the Eev. Peter Equillon from Socorro to the Cathe- 
<iral, with the title of Vicar-General, and as such sent him 
to France to bring priests and Brothers. Before entering 
into a description of the hardships, experienced by the 
Ticar-General in taking possession of the mission, as well 
as of his journey to Sonora, it is just to premise a few 
"words upon those then humble missions, but destined to 
play a great part in religious and civil history. 

What I call Arizona missions are those contained within 
the Territory of that name, which, before the treaty. of 
Cruadalupe, in 1848, formed a part of the province of So- 
nora in Mexico. The history of these missions, as of those 
■of New Mexico, is naturally divided into three different 
epochs, according to the different civil governments which 
bave succeeded one another — the Spanish, the Mexican 
:and the American, and I shall divide th«se notes accord- 

Spanish or Colonial Government. 
ArousT 13, 1521. . 

It was under this government that were founded the 
missions in New Mexico and Arizona, but at different ep- 
•ochsi for, whereas, while what is now northern Texas and 
New Mexico received the light of faith as early as the ex- 
pedition of Coronado, but more strongly in 1550, eight 
years later, Arizona does not seem to have been taken pos- 
session of by the missionaries until 1682. The difference 


between these two dates is explained by the progressive 
march of the government after the conjjtiest of Mexi6'6. 
The march of the victorious armies took plStce first on tlie 
eastern slope of the Sierra Madre, as it was by far the 
more settled, from south to north, and it was over a celi- 
tury later when it reached the western slope, to the banks 
of the Gila river, The missionary, an angel of peace, fol- 
lowed the conquering armies, " carrying," as well says 
Archbishop Salpointe, "the consolations of the cross to 
those who had been conquered by the sword." 

The first missionaries of the gospel, on the eastward 
slope of the mountains, were religious of the Order of 
Saint Francis, and those of the western, priests of the 
Company of Jesus. Both by dint of undaunted zeal and 
at the price of the greatest sacrifices, including the lives of 
many of them, they succeeded in establishing missions in 
the countries into which they had penetrated. These mis- 
sions, in the course of years, passed through terrible or- 
deals and acute sufferings, on account ' of the frequent 
revolts of the natives, who repeatedly expelled, here and 
there, the missionaries for longer or Shorter periods. The 
Arizona missions in particular had to stand without ceas- 
ing, from 1751 to 1754, the attacks of two cruel and war- 
like tribes united in the bloody work, the Pimas and the 
Seris, who caused them great damages. In 1754 order 
was somewhat restored, and the missionaries commenced 
anew their labor of love and salvation. Some of the de- 
stroyed missions arose phcenix-like from their ruinsj and 
others were founded, but only by continually meeting and 
successfully combating numberless difiSculties down to the 
day when the cry of independence was heard over the 
mesas of Mexico, announcing the overthrow of Spanish 
rule and the succession of the Mexican Grovernment. 

Mexican Goveknment. 
FEBKUAEr 24, 1824. 

The fall of the Spanish rule caused the expulsion of the 
religious orders which this government had introdaced into 


its newly conquered realms. At that time the missions 
were confided to the secular clergy established in Mexico. 
The Bishops, no doubt, did their best to encourage zealous 
priests to take the places left vacant by the missionaries, 
but it was much more than they could do. The priests re- 
sponded but feebly, and many missions, particularly the 
mpst remote, were forcibly deprived of their spiritual di- 
rectors, or compelled to see them at rare intervals and only 
on short visits. It followed that in a few years many of 
these missions disappeared entirely, the whole population 
went back to the free life of the wilderness, and the church 
buildings crumbled down rapidly. Out of the seven flour- 
ishing missions in Arizona, six have completely dis- 
appeared, and possess now only an historical interest to 
the archeologist, testifying by their ruins to the sublime 
labors of ancient missionaries^ Things were at that point 
when the Treaty of Guadalupe, quoted above, placed the 
country into the hands of the United States Government. 

United States Government. 
August 18, 1846. 

At this time Arizona was inhabited solely by Indians 
and a few Mexican families, who had settled here and 
there upon the lands of the old missions. However, the 
discovery of gold in California brought many people from 
Mexico, who in their emigration had to cross Arizona, 
many of whom, later, when tired of mining or despairing 
of rich finds, came back to settle there. 

When, in 1859, Vicar-GenTal Machebeuf came to take 
formal possession, in the name of the Bishop of Santa Fe, 
of the Arizona missions, recently annexed to the diocese of 
Santa Fe, this missionary, full of zeal, braved a thousand 
perils. Nothing daunted, he fearlessly went without delay 
to the missions confided to him by his Bishop. The only 
place of any importance was Tucson ^ which numbei^ed 
about four hundred inhabitants, and that city was chosen 
by the missionary for his place of residence. He did not 
stay there long, for in November of the same year he went 
back to Santa Fe. 


Although comparatively short, the stay of Vicar-General 
Machebeuf at Tucson produced great fruits for the good 
of souls. His memory now is fresh in the minds of the in- 
habitants; they tell even now how the good missionary used 
to preach on all occasions, and of the many confessions 
which followed those instructions night after night, some- 
times at an advanced hour. I imagine I see the zealous 
priest, in all the strength of his manhood, with that activ- 
ity which he received as a gift from Heaven, and which we 
have all admired in him! How little all these instructions 
and confessions cost him, day and night, in a field of labor 
entirely new, in the midst of a people so desirous of hear- 
the word of God, and of strengthening their souls in the 
sacraments, of which many of them had been hitherto de- 

But, alas! the roses without thorns are few. One day, 
in the course of his instructions, he had occasion to speak 
against the crime of homicide, and he did it with his usual 
force of language, intending to make an impression. He 
spoke, however, in a general manner. By a singular dis- 
grace, the night before, a murder had been committed in 
the town, but the speaker knew it not, and the murderer 
was in thenumber of his hearers. Imagining the sermon 
directed to himself alone, and on the other hand thinking 
he had killed a man in self-defense, he resolved to take 
revenge upon the preacher for his words. But immediately 
after the ceremonies, the missionary started for San Xavier 
del Bac, nine miles south of Tucson. On his return, the 
angered man met him in a wood, having gone there on pur- 
pose to meet him. After a" few commonplace words, the 
guilty murderer came to the subject uppermost in his 
heart, to the utter surprise of the good Father, who knew 
nothing yet of the murder, nor of the offense he had given. 
Explanations became useless; the excited man would hear 
nothing, and the good missionary, perceiving that with his 
hand trembling with anger he was attempting to draw his 
revolver from his belt, he came to the conclusion to see 
whether his faithful beast would be able to run a race. 
The idea was a good one. His assailant was in a carriage, 
he on horseback. He lost no time, and was at a distance 


before the man had tiine to turn his carriage to piii^sue 
him. He started to pursue him, but it is not known hd\r 
far he went, as the fleeing missionary did not look back, 
but used the spurs and used them so well that the heels df 
his boots came off, and in his rapid course the wind ble* 
off his hat. It thus happened that the words of the poet 
were realized: "Pileum et talos calceaminis in fuga per- 
didit" — " He lost his hat and the heels of his shoes in his 

From that day forth, while he remained in Tucson, the 
missionary, without knowing or even suspecting it, was 
guarded day and night by a number of Mexicans, who 
were afraid of some bodily injury being inflicted upon him 
by those who pretended to be affronted by his instructions. 

It was at this time that, owing to numberless diMculties, 
the Vicar General left Arizona for Sonora, to settle all 
difficulties with the Bishop of that place, who had, until 
then, jurisdiction over the missions of Arizona, as the 
Bishop of Durango had had over those of New Mexico. I 
kao w that the active missionary passed through a thousand 
difficulties, both in going and in returning, and that he 
straightened out all difficulties with the Bishop of Sonora, 
I have had the happiness of receiving the details of that 
journey from the lips of the traveler himself, and many 
facts are thus brought to light, showing full well the excel- 
lence of the Bishop of Sants Fe and the fitness of Father 
Machebeiif to be his Vicar-General. It will be the subject 
bf the next chapter. 

There was then no church. in Tucson, that of the old 
mission having long since fallen into ruins ; but the good 
missionary knew how to improvise a church, at least for 
the present. A good Mexican Catholic offered for that 
purpose a lot on which there was a house with two rooms, 
each of about twelve by fifteen feet. It was a beginning, 
and one day after mass he invited the congregation to go 
with him to a neighboring wood, the men to cut and the 
women to carry the material for the construction of a/acdZ 
or Indian hut. The same day saw the completion of the 
new addition. The jacal with the two rooms gave a space 
of about thirty-five feet by fifteen. It was a modest edifide 
it must be acknowledged, and yet it had the honor of being 


ihe ooly &h,4Fch in Tucson till the year 1866. It must be 
said that at these times the houses of the people were of 
very simple construction, and they did not think much 
of adorning the house of God in any better manner. 

The San Xavier Indian mission was the object of the 
particular care of the Vicar General during his stay in 
Tucson. He visited it a number of times, and caused the 
exterior of the grand church to be repaired in the places 
which had suffered most injury by winds and rains. He 
was on the point of starting for a complete journey through 
all the missions in the different pueblos upon the Gila, 
when he was recalled to Santa Fe by his Bishop. 

At his return the Vicar General gave a good account of 
the disposition of the Catholics of Tucson to Bishop Lamy, 
and it was determined not to leave these missions without 
priests. Father Manuel' Chavez was sent there, but stayed 
only about four or five months. Father Donato, an Italian 
Franciscan friar, succeeded him, and laid the foundation 
of the present cathedral of Tucson. The Jesuit fathers, 
Luis Bosco and Carlos Mesea, succeeded him on the 5th 
of April, 1863. In March, 1864, Bishop Lamy, always 
indefatigable, went to Tucson on a pastoral visit, and cele- 
brated the ofl&ces of Holy Week and of Easter within the 
walls of the new church adorned with evergreens and with 
an impromptu roof only over the sanctuary. From the 
Book of Baptisms of the Tucson cathedral the Eight Rev- 
erend J. B. Salpointe copies the following document which 
I insert here : 

" Hoy, dia de la festividad de la Pascua y 27 de Marzo 
" del ano de 1864, hamos visitado esta parroquia de San 
" Agostin del Tucson, siendo encargado de la administra- 
" cion el Padre Dn Luis Bosco, S. J. Dimos la Confirma- 
" cion y habiendo visto y ecsaminado este libro de partidas 
" lo hemos hallardo en buen orden. Sigue la firma, 

" J. B. Lamy, Obpo de Santa Fe." * 

* To-day, festival pf Easter, the 27th gf March of the year 1864, 
ire have vlsited'^h^' Parish of Saint Augustine of Tucson, the Bev. 
Don Luis Bosco, 8. J,, having the charge of its administration. We 
have given Confirmation, and having seen and examined this book oi 
i^ouonnt;, we find it in gpod order- Attested, 

' J. B. Lamz, Bishop of Santa F^. 


After this visit the Bishop went to the mission of San 
Xavier del Bac, and judging a priest needed there, ap- 
pointed Father Carlos Mesea to that post, and left Father 
Luis Bosco sole administrator of the parish of San Agos- 
tin, Tucson. Probably on account of the bad health of 
Father Bosco, both Jesuit fathers l^ef t their missions on the 
8th of August, 1864. Both worked faithfully in their res- 
pective missions without having accomplished a great deal. 
Intending to dedicate a. chapter to this great pastoral vi»t 
of the Bishop of Santa Fe, amid hostile Indians and in 
want of everything, I will say nothing of it here, and continue 
my narrative. 

The departure of the Jesuit fathers from Tucson caused 
the good Bishop much trouble of mind upon the future of 
the Arizona missions. These missions being dangerous on 
account of the savage Indians, the Apaches, who infested 
the country everywhere, the good prelate did not wish to 
impose them upon any one. He manifested his desire to 
see some zealous priest accept them, and three presented 
themselves. Two were accepted. Fathers Lassaigne and 
Bernal. These two missionaries started for their missions 
in the spring of 1865, but after reaching Los Cruces they 
could find no means of travel for that hundred miles of 
desert which separated them from Arizona. They could 
find no one willing to risk his life in bringing them through 
the camps of the Indians, who at that time massacred all 
white men found defenseless. After three weeks of fruit- 
less and patient waiting, they returned to New Mexico. 

Dangers awaited still. The good Bishop of Santa Fe 
was alarmed for that portion of his flock left thus so long 
without shepherds. He made a new appeal to the good 
wiH of his clergy; three presented themselves, were ac- 
cepted, and left Santa Fe on January 7, 1866, for their dis- 
tant missions. This time measures were agreed upon with 
General Carlton, post commander at Santa Fe, who had 
them conveyed as far as Camp Bowie, the limit of his de- 
partment. At Camp Bowie Major McFarland, post com- 
mander, offered the missionaries his services, and under 
his escort they reached Tucson safely on the 7th of Febru- 
ary, one month after their leaving Santa Fe. There were 


no reception ceremonies, they quietly entered the city, to 
the intense joy of the population, who did not know the 
precise day of their arrival. 

Don Juan Elias, a good, kind-hearted inhabitant of Tuc- 
son, received them into his house till one should be pre- 
pared for them, which was done a few weeks after. The ■ 
three heroes, who had thus left New Mexico for the wilds 
of Arizona, were the now Most Key. J. B. Salpointe, D.D., 
and Fathers Boueart and Birmingham. According to the 
directions given by Bishop Lamy, Father Salpointe was 
given the mission of Tucson with the title of Vicar; Father 
Boucard went to San Xavier, and Father Birmingham to 

When Father Salpointe reached Tucson, he found there 
about six hundred inhabitants. The only church' which 
could be used was the one improvised by Vicar-General 
Machebeuf, two rooms and a jacal close together. The 
church commenced by Father Donato had the walls up, 
nothing more; the temporary roof on the sanctuary, put 
up for the Bishop's visit, had long ago disappeared. He 
resolved at once to have it covered and rendered fit for ser- 
vice. - He met- much^ good will among the inhabitants. 
Collections were taken up, which only sufficed for the re- 
pair of the walls injured by the weather. Everything was 
excessively, dear, and the contributions became smaller. 
Father Salpointe begged the inhabitants to fetch timbers 
from the Santa Eita Mountains, at a distance of forty-six 
miles. The zealous shepherd went with three cars and five 
men, but the expedition did not succeed, owing to the 
snow which covered the mountain; the high and necessary 
pines could not be reached, and the cars returned almost 
empty. This happened on the last days of 1866. It was 
proposed to go on another expedition in the spring, but 
the ill success of the first caused it to be put off from day 
to day, till it was completely abandoned. The discouraged 
Father covered the sanctuary of his church with canvas, 
and commenced to have the offices there, leaving it to Pro- 
vidence to find the means of putting a roof on the edifice. ' 

In 1867 a house was built with the intention of obtain- 
ing Sisters to teach the girls of Tucson. The building of 


tl^f^ vifkUe was accomplished without d^ffic^ultj, bu^ a roof 
w^^ nece^^arj, a&d it is here that the dispositions of Di- 
vine Providence became clear. The school became t^e 
hejp of the church from thQ very commencement. The 
pepple, anxious to have Sisters in their midst as soon as 
possible, collected some money, which they gave to the 
priest to have wood cut and hauled for the roofs of both 
the Bchoolhouse and the church. Father Salpointe hast- 
ened to send a number of men into the mountains of Hua- 
chuca, sixty-five miles from Tucson. The timbers vrere cut 
and hewed, but the same difficulty presented itself; no cars 
could be found to haul them, and the Apaches were lying 
in wait to burn them, should the wood-cutters abandon 
their post. Three hundred dollars was spent in hauling 
these timbers to Camp Wallow, and two merchants from 
Tucson offered to haul them when their cars should go in 
that direction. The lumber reached Tucson in the fall of 
1868, and work was soon commenced upon both church 
and school. 

When the young and zealous missionaries had reached 
Arizona, they at once tried to follow the directions of the 
Ordinary, and open schools for children of both sexes. 
Education has always been the great desire of Bishop 
Lamy, everywhere, and he did not fail here. San Xavier 
had a population of about four hundred souls, divided al- 
most equally between Mexicans and Indians. There a 
school was opened and confided to a layman, under the 
direction of the pastor; but for want of means two months 
afterwards it was closed. The same reason obliged the 
priest at San Xavier to retire to Tucson, to live more eco^ 
nomically with Father Salpointe. The schoolmaster fol- 
lowed, and opened his school at Tucson. In 1866 a church 
had also been erected at Yuma, at the junction of the Gila 
and the great Colorado rivers. But the fever attacked the 
priests, and Fathers Boucard and Birmingham left Ari- 
zona, and in 1867 Bishop Lamy sent Father Jouvenceau to 
help the only priest left in Arizona, Vicar Salpointe. Fa- 
ther Jouvenc^aux was at once stationed at Tuma. 

Under the wise direction of Father Salpointe, the mis- 
sipQS inpreased rapid,ly in number. om$. became so import- 


ant that Bishop Lamy conferred with the Propaganda on the 
subject, and Arizona was erected into a Vicariate Apostolic 
in September, 1868, but the Bishop elect, the Bt. Bev. J. 
B. Salpointe, received official communication of the fact 
only in February, 1869. Ho immediately started for 
France, and was consecrated at Glermont-Ferraud on June 
20th of the same year. 

It would be foreign to my subject, were I to write the 
history of the Vicariate Apostolic of Arizona from 1869 to 
1884. Its interesting history of the past was necessary 
as long as it was a part of the vast diocese of Santa Fe. 
Suffice to say that it is in a most prosperous condition, and 
its ^yorthy shepherd, the Bt.-Bev. J. B. Salpointe, could 
look with pride upon his clergy, his churches, his missions 
and his schools, when in May, 1884, he received his bulls, 
transferring him from Arizona to Santa Fe, as coadjutor 
with the right of succession to the Most Bev. Archbishop 
Lamy, an appointment according to the heart of the ven- 
erable prelate of Santa Fe, and one that caused the clergy 
to welcome him with the utmost sincerity and happiness. 
May he live many years, sowing the seed of Catholic Faith 
and reaping bountiful harvests in New Mexico, as he has 
done in Arizona. 



The Very Eev. P. J. Machebeuf Goes to Sonoea. 

Dr. Lamy, having sent his Vicar- General, Father Mache- 
beuf, to Arizona to take care of the missions in that terri- 
tory, newly ceded by Mexico to the United States, the 
latter left Albuquerqae, where he had resided till the slim- 
mer of 1858. But having arrived there, he could not take 
possession of the missions without having an interview with 
the Ordinary. The States of Sonora and Sinaloa, along 
with Arizona, had formed the diocese of Sinaloa, that epis- 
copal see being then occupied by the saintly Dr. Losa, and 
Father Machebeuf had to communicate to him the decree 
of the Propaganda annexing Arizona to the diocese of 
Santa Fe. He left Tucson on the 20th of Deceriiber, 1858, 
and arrived in Sonora on the 24th. There he was received 
'with open arms. On Christmas day he celebrated mass in, 
three different places. The midnight mass was chanted at 
San Ignacio, the second was celebrated at Ymuris, and the 
third at Magdalena, in a private chapel. He performed in 
those places all the duties of parish priest, by request of 
the pastor. Father Piniera, who, knowing the arrival of 
the Vicar-G-eneral, had made all the arrangements before 
leaving for some far off missions at the head of the Santa 
Cruz Valley. 

At Magdalena Father Machebeuf found a number of 
travelers and tourists who wished to go further southwest, 
but were deterred by the news> spreading on all sides of an 
uprising of Indians. Seeing the ever active and fearless 
Vicar determined to proceed on his journey, they resolved 
to join him and form a caravan. Thus they started, ten in 
number, with carriages, wagons and horses, and on the Slst 
of December they reached the town of San Miguel. On 
the next day, January 1, 1859, a great festival was to take 
place there. All things were prepared, the church was 


adorned and the altars covered with the choicest of flowers. 
But the priest who was to officiate did not come; so Father 
Machebeuf was invited to conduct the services. The good 
people were delighted. The first vespers were chanted in 
the most-solemn manner, and the next day all went in the 
grandest style. The major domo thanked him in the name 
of the people, and several gentlemen on horseback accom- 
panied him the greater part of his way. 

The next day our travelers reached an hacienda nine 
miles south of ban Miguel, and slept there. The owner of 
the hacienda made the request that the Sefior Vicario, as 
he was called, should on his return celebrate their annual 
festival on the 2d of February. The Vicario readily granted 
the request, and started on his journey. It must be re- 
membered ihat now he was accompanied on his travels by 
a youDg man of good family .named Pablo Analla, and by 
the driver, for at San Miguel all the other tourists had dis- 
persed in various directions, the country west of that place 
being comparatively free from marauding Indians. 

Thence the Vicario went to the magnificent hacienda of 
La Labor, the residence of Governor Gandara. This gen- 
tleman, having no chaplain, invited Father Machebeuf to 
celebrate mass in his old but beautiful chapel, and after a 
day's rest he started for Hermosillo^ where he arrived , on 
the 5th of January. There he met the Messrs. Camon, 
French merchants. They numbered seven brothers, who 
had all acquired considerable wealth in trade and in carry- ' 
ing on one of the most extensive establishments in that 
country. The best church at Hermosillo was a private 
chapel belonging to an old lady. Dona Trinidad, but a new 
parish church was building in the most magnificent style. 
The Vicario stayed there for the day of Epiphany, the guest 
of his countrymen. The resident priest was a young man, 
humble and pious, lately ordained by Bishop Losa, yet 
having the -title and performing the functions of Vicar 

Father Machebeuf was glad to meet there a French priest, 
Father Devereux, who resided at Ures, then the capital of 
Sonora, but was acting while there as assistant priest of 
the parish. This kind priest accompanied the travelers as 


far as La Cueva, another fine hacienda five miles from Her- 
mbsillo, belonging to Padre Lacara, then Secretaiy of the 
Bishop. Going out after supper, they were surprised to 
find all the population on the plaza, and to behold an im- 
mense pavilion where every preparation was made for the 
famous play of "Los Pastores," " The Shepherds," being 
adted every day during- the week of Epiphany. It is a very 
beautiful play, taking in all the scenes of the shepherds 
and the Magi, at the stable of Bethlehem, to adore the new 
born Savior. It was acted with great decorum and in a 
spirit of faith and devotion. 

The next day the Vicario, bidding farewell to the French 
priest and promising to visit him at Ures, set out for Guay- 
mas, a distance of one hundred miles to the southwest. 
The road was on an immense plateau, without water ex- 
cept in two small valleys, where there are two ranches or 
stock farms. But the most important was distant a\iout 
five miles irom Guaymas, in a beautiful valley called La 
Noche Buena. Pressing onward he reached the city, and 
was most kindly received by General Stone, who held the 
rank of Brigadier-General under General Sumner. He was 
then chief surveyor for a large company, and was at the 
same time under a contract with the Mexican government 
to explore the coast of Sonora as far up as the Gulf of 
California. He had with him a company of engineers, car- 
, penters and others, also some soldiers for protection. Gen- 
eral Stone received Father Machebeuf with the utmost 
kindness, having been received in the fold of the church 
while residing in California, several years before, and hav- 
ing since remained a fervent Catholic. 

Just then an American steame.- was expected from Maz- 
atlan. The Sefior Yicario thought this a fortunate circum- 
stance for him to sail on the vessel, and afterwards to cross 
the mountains to the city of Durango, to show to the old 
Bishop Sobiria the decree of the Propaganda annexing to 
the diocese of Santa Fe all the missions of Arizona. But 
the expected vessel came not. In this emergency, General 
Stone generously offered a sailing vessel, the property of 
the company, for the use of the Vicario. He fitted it out 
at his own expense, with an officer and four men and pro- 


visions for four months, and appointed Father Machebeuf 
captain of the Tessel. They sailed as far as the mouth of 
the Bio Santa Cruz. There they left the vessel, and a son- 
in-law of Don Jose Maria Almada, who by permission of 
the captain was on board the vessel, being well acquainted 
with the people, engaged saddle mules. 

That night they reached the house of another son-in-law 
of Don Jose Maria Almada, where they received the great- 
est kindnesses, and the next day arrived at the mansion of 
the venerable patriarch, who was surrounded by fourteen 
of his married children, all living within a short distance 
of one another, and forming a most picturesque village. 

The residence^ of Don Jose Maria Almada is an immense 
hacienda, worked by four hundred men. He owns the 
richest mines of the country. The house has a magnificent 
front about four hundred feet long, run in all its length 
with a portico supported by marble columns and sculp- 
tured capitals. The furniture, carpets and curtains are ex- 
ceedingly rich. The house has no China ware — all silver. 
The gardens are simply immense, and produce every kind 
of flowers and fruit. The country for miles belongs to the 
family, all his children being married in the neighbor- 
hood. It would be impossible to relate all the kindness 
done by Don Jose Maria Almada and his worthy family to 
the Senor Vicario. 

The day after their arrival there. Dr. Losa, Bishop of 
Sinaloa and Sonora, arrived at a place called La Villa de 
Ids Alamos, some three miles in the north, in order to ad- 
minister Confirmation. Father Machebeuf hastened to go, 
and, after presenting to him his respects, to settle the 
business that brought him to Sonora. The Bishop, who 
was lodged at the house of a gentleman named Don Mateo 
Ortiz, received him with the utmost cordiality, and prom- 
ised at once to write a document delivering into his hands 
all the missions of Arizona, which had hitherto belonged 
to Sonora, aitd in the meanwhile granted him all the facil- 
ities necessary to practice his ministry within the limits of 
the vast diocese of Sonora. 

The next day being a Sunday, all the population of the 
neighborhood came to hear the Bishop, who delivered an 


eloquent sermon and, administered the sacrament of Con- 
firmation to a large number of persons. After a few days, 
all the documents necessary for the cession of the Arizona 
missions to the diocese of Santa Fe were placed by Bishop 
Losa in the hands of Father Machebeuf . 

As there was nothing now to detain him, the Yicario 
resolved at first to continue his journey by the means 
of the boat waiting for him at the month of the Santa 
Cruz, in order to reach Mazatlan, but Dr. Losa dis- 
suaded him from it, as Mazatlan was then in a state of 
siege, the liberal and the conservative parties being at war 
with each other. On the other hand, navigation by sail 
being very slow up the Gulf of California, owing to the 
strong current caused by the influx of the great Colorado 
river, it was xesolved that he should leave the boat, give up 
his commission as captain, and go by land, crossing the 
magnificent valleys of the Eio Mayo and Yaqui, occupied 
almost entirely by Catholic Indians. However, the prefect 
and the commander of the fort there tried to dissuade- him 
from that step, saying that it was a very dangerous journey 
ani it would be better to return by boat to Q-uaymas. 

The Yicario believed this, and determined to return; and 
with this determination he went to say farewell to good 
Bishop Losa and communicate to him what he had been 
told by the prefect. The prelate smiled, and told him to 
fear nothing, that there was no danger whatever in passing 
through the Indian country; that, on the contrary, he 
would be well treated, and that he would learn on the 
journey why the prefect had endeavored to dissuade him. 
He therefore bought from the family Almada's horses and 
mules at a moderate price, and Don Mateo Ortiz furnished 
him with a guide and also with all kinds of the best provi- 
sions for the road. The officer who had been with him 
from Guaymas insisted upon accompanying him some dis- 
tance. Forming thus a caravan, they bade adieu to their 
kind hosts, and started on their journey. 

When at some distance from the Kio Mayo, the guide 
started ahead, to announce the arrival of the Vicario of 
Santa Fe. At once all was stirring in the village, and 
twenty Indians on horseback came to meet the travelers 


five miles from the place. The chief, and after him all the 
Indians, leaped from their horses and begged the blessing 
of the venerable Yicar, after which each one kissed his 
hand, and, re-mounting, escorted him to the village. 
There the whole population were assembled, and all fell 
on their knees and received the Father's blessing. The 
old chief, or governor, invited him into his house, and the 
greatest Joy reigned in the pueblo. 

The next day mass was solemnly chanted, and the Vicar 
addressed words full of fire and love to the fervent congre- 
gation, telling them he ha'd been commissioned by their 
Bishop to announce to them the coming of the latter among 
thera in a short while. At these words their joy knew no 
bounds, and after mass all fiocked around him to thank 
him. He was astonished and deeply edified by the fervor 
of thBse Indians. 

In a village half Indian and half Mexican, it was learned 
why the prefect of Sonora did not wish the Very Rev. Vicar 
to pass through those populations. During the preceding 
war between the liberals and the conservatives, the liberal 
party, to which the prefect belonged, had sacked these vil- 
lages, profaned several churches, burnt their altars and 
confessionals, and converted the churches into stables for 
their horses. At the sight of these desecrations the Indi- 
ans revolted, drove the intruders away, attacked the haci- 
endas and villas of gentlemen of the neighborhood who 
belonged to the liberal party, sacked and burned them, 
and several soldiers were slain. 

Traveling on, our party, consisting yet of the officer and 
guide, accompanying the Vicario and his men, reached,"on 
a Saturday evening, the banks of the Yaqui river, and soon 
afterwards arrived at the village of Torin. The governor 
came to meet them with his Indians, and the reception was 
of the kindest nature. Mass was said on Sunday morning, 
and the governor insisted on waiting on the padre at his 
meals, which consisted chiefly of milk and dried fish. 

The journey through these populations took two weeks, 

after which the carriage, which had been left in Guaymas 

under the charge of the driver, met the Vicario, and the 

officer and the guide departed for their homes. 

Presently he reached Hermosillo, and said mass in the 


beautiful chapel of Dofla Trinidad, where he found all 
things necessary for mass, and all the members of the fam- 
ily approached the sacraments. 

Remembering his promise to Father Devereux to visit 
him at his home, the Vicario started for Ures district, about 
forty miles to the north. The kind priest had left TJres, 
and the parish priest, a very young man, begged of him to 
enroll the greater portion of his congregation in the Sodal- 
ity of the Scapular, for, strange to say, although every- 
body was wearing the scapular, none had ever been en- « 
rolled by a priest having powers to do so. The young 
priest gave the greatest example of humility and devotion, 
by being the first to be enrolled at the sanctuary rail, in 
the presence of hundreds of his people. 

Leaving TJres, the travelers took the road to San Miguel. 
On their way they stopped at the hacienda of Governor 
Gandora, who had been for eighteen years Governor of 
Sonora, but was exiled by the liberals and lived in great 
retirement. Father Machebeuf had letters and mementoes 
for him from two of his sons residing in Tubac, Arizona. 
The aged parents shed tears of joy on reading those letters, 
and asked the Father numberless questions about their 
sons. The chapel of the hacienda was magnificent. When 
the Vicario passed there the first time the family were ab- 
sent from home. The next day being Sunday, mass was 
said at the parish church. 

Journeying on, the Vicario soon reached the hacienda of 
the gentleman with whom he had promised to celebrate the 
feast of the Purification, and that gentleman was awaiting 
him seated under the porch of his fine residence. But, 
having noticed signs of drunkenness on persons of passage 
there, he, notwithstanding the most earnest entreaties, 
refused to enter, and continued his journey to San Miguel. 

After the departure of the Vicario, the distressed gentle- 
man sent his son after him, saying that he had guessed 
the reason why the Vicario would not enter, but that it 
was no fault of theirs, and the obnoxious persons would be 
sent away from the hacienda immediately. Upon these as- 
surances; and moved moreover by the tears of the young 
man, he promised to return on horseback the next morn- 
ing, for, being at the very gates of San Miguel, he would 


stay and rest there for the night. He accordingly returned 
the next morning, and performed the services to the great 
joy of the inhabitants, who received the sacraments in 
large numbers. 

In a few days Father Machebeuf reached Fort Buchanan, 
where he rested a while after his tiresome journey, and 
soon after reached Tucson, where he stayed some time, as 
detailed in the preceding chapter. Soon, however, he felt 
the necessity of starting for Santa Fe, to deliver to Bishop 
Lamy the documents given him by Bishop Losa concern- 
ing the annexation of the Arizona missions to the diocese 
of Santa Fe. Besides, traveling in swampy places, with- 
out proper care or necessary cover, he had contracted a 
malarial fever, and nothing could cure it but the genial 
climate of Santa Fe. 

Behold now the fearless traveler, seated in his carriages 
with no other escort than the driver and a Mexican boy, 
about to cross a country infested with warring Apaches. 
The party camped on the first evening upon the banks of a 
river called El Agua Escarvada, where only a few days pre- 
vious several soldiers had been killed by Apaches. Cross- 
ing the river, they began the ascension of the high moun- 
tain of Ghericasca, through what is called Apache Canon, 
ens of the most dangerous spots in the whole south v^est.* 
Eain was falling in torrents, the mountain road was steep 
and difficult, and Father Machebeuf, always active and 
venturesome, took his saddle, horse and galloped in advance 
of the party. At the summit of the mountain^ by large and 
never-failing springs of cool and clear water, the station 
for the change of horses had been built by the stage com- 

When Hearing the house he found it surrounded and 
besieged by Indians. Fearlessly he approached; .the chief 
came to him. 

" Tu oapitan'?" said he. 

• ' No capitan^" answered the Father, showing his crucifix, 

*FoTt Bowie has been built there eince. 

tThis station was called La Estacion de la Sierra de loa Burros. 
Americans called it the Soldier's Farewell. 


"Tu padre?" 

" Si, yo padre." 

"Bueno. Comoleva?" And he shook hands with the 
priest, after which he called his savages, who all did the 
same thing. 

The chief then asked if he had seen soldiers on the road. 
Certainly he had seen them, and even now a troop were 
ascending the mountain. The savages hurriedly consulted 
among themselves, and then saying, "Adios, padre," they 
galloped away and were seen no more. 

The besieged inhabitants of the station opened the doors, 
and, coming out, looked upon the Vicar as their savior. 
There were only three Americans there as station keej)ers. 
They invited the Vicar into the house, and gave him the 
best they had for the journey, and insisted on his passing 
the night there, as it was late and the rain was pouring. 

After breakfast he started for Las Cruces. He soon 
reached Dona Ana, crossed the Jornada del Muerto, and 
passing through the different missions of the lower Eio, be 
arrived at Santa Fe in good spirits, the fever having-left 
him on the way. He was received with open arms by the 
dear, kind Bishop Lamy, who congratulated him heartily 
upon his successful undertaking. 



Missions of Coloeado — Journey op Bishop Lamy to Denver. 

Colorado was contained within the Vicariate Hast nf the 
Eocky Mountains, a limitless expanse of territory wisely 
ruled over by the Eight Reverend J. B. Miege, S. J., who 
was appointed by the Holy See in the Pall of 1850, and 
consecrated in St. Louis March 25, 1851. In the Summer 
of 1860, Bishop Miege made a long and tedious journey to 
the gold diggings of Pike's Peak and the newly laid out 
town of Denver. On account of the immense distance from 
Leavenworth, the difficulties of travel over the plains, the 
vast deserts that separated Bishop Miege from the new 
populations, the scarcity of priests in his own Vicariate, 
Colorado was annexed to the Diocese of Santa Fe by 
order of the Holy See, so that the Vicariate bacame a part 
of what now forms the Province of Santa Fe. 

Already Vicar-General Machebeuf had made a journey 
to Colorado, immediately after his return. from Arizona, 
and as soon as Colorado was annexed to Santa Fe he was 
sent to open missions in that Territory. A man burning 
with zeal, possessed of an undaunted courage, and of a 
steady nerve' and tireless activity, with a strong frame of 
body, he at once started, obedient in all things to the voice 
of his superior, and taking with him only one companion, 
in the person of his worthy Vicar-General, Father J. B. 
Raverdy, he set out for his far-distant charge, the future 
scene of his hard labors, his mortifications and patience, 
and finally of his amazing success and triumph. 

In a very short time Colorado saw numberless mining 
camps arising suddenly within her Territory; Denver also 
grew in population. The indefatigable Vicar-General was 
everywhere, preaching, hearing confessions, saying mass, 
and administering the Sacraments. Thus passed the years 
1861 and 1862. In the Summer of 1863, Bishop Lamy re- 
ceived a letter from his Vicar-General, which brought a 
great fear into the heart of the good prelate. The date of 
he let'er was old, the postal service in the West being^ 


slow. It related a terrible accident of a fall on precipitous 
rocks from a carriage drawn by fiery steeds. The letter was 
very inexplicit, and left the good Bishop in mortal fear 
that Father Machebenf was no more. The letter, too, was 
from a strange hand. The good Bishop could not remain 
idle; he set out from Santa Fe atonce to bring help to his 
missionary, in the hope he could yet find him alive. The 
prelate went directly to Mora, to invite the Pastor there, 
now the Most Rev. J. B. Salpointe, to accompany him in 
his journey to Denver. To-day the journey can be made 
■with ease, in a Pullman car, and in a very short time, but 
in those times all journeys were made in a being primitive 
manner, were very slow, and attended with many dangers. 
No time was to be lost. The next day after his arrival, 
with his traveling companion, the Bishop set out from 
M ora, forgetting that the country he was to travel through 
was almost uninhabited, and without taking provisions, 
which were qiost necessary for such a long journey. From 
the evening of the first day it was easy to see that their 
supper had not the proportions of what Americans call a 
square meal. In the morning the breakfast was still lighter; 
infact, so light'that it would have required a deep philos- 
opher to determine the parts appropriated by each one of 
the guests. In the afternoon of that day the Bishop and 
his companion, with a servant not mentioned above, reached 
the distance of four or five miles from the village of Eayado. 
There the travelers halted, and it was voted by acclama- 
tion that the . servant should go to the nearest houses and 
procure the necessary provisions, the Bishop being unwil- 
, ling to derogate from the established custom of travelers 
in those countries where the hostelries were few and far 
between — that is, camping out, cooking your own victuals, 
and sleeping under the wagon. The servant said a word 
for Don Jesus Abreu, and it required no more. Soon after 
the little camp was furnished with all the provisions 
necessary to bring the travelers as far as the Rio de las 
Animas, to-day the city of Trinidad. 

The Animas River was reached on Saturday evening, and 
the nest morning the travelers, having called together the 
few inhabitants who had commenced to settle there, eel- 


ebrated mass, Tiook breakfast, and started at eleven o'clock 
on their distant journey. On the same day, at ten o'clock 
at night, they reached a place called LasTimpas.' There 
was some water, and it was the only place where it could 
be found before reaching the Huerfano Eiver. " The water 
was there," says Archbishop Salpointe, in one of his finest 
descriptive moods, "but it was to be found at the very 
bottom of a deep ravine and in the cavities of the rocks 
which form its bed, a thing not only difficult but danger- 
ous in the darkness of the night. I undertook to follow 
the ravine, but without descending into it, being satisfied 
to sound its depth and its contents by throwing down 
rocks now and then. After a while the splashing below 
told me that the rock had fallen into a pool of water, but 
where to find a path and descend to it without exposing 
one's self to a fall of twelve or fifteen feet ? The Bishop was 
the first who had the courage to run down the precipitous 
bank of the ravine, and who, little by little, helpinjf him- 
self with his hands and feet, reached the coveted spot. But 
vain hope ! The water was in small quantity and so cor- 
ruga'ted that it was impossible to drink it. However, we 
were on the way, and, following the ravine higher, we 
found a spot where .the water was of easy access, abundant, 
and fit to drink." 

The next day the travelers reached the Huerfano Eiver, 
and stopped at the rancho of Mr. Doyle . There the Bishop 
and his companion learned with unspeakable joy that the 
life of Vicar-General Machebeuf was out of danger, although 
it was almost certain, according to the opinion of the phy- 
sicians, that he would remain a cripple for the balance of 
his days. Alas! that opinion was but too true, and the 
missionary who • has since- become Vicar- Apostolic of Col- 
orado has remained lame for life. But his natural activity 
and his great mental energy make one forget that he is 
crippled, and to a certain extent hide an infirmity which 
in other men would appear much more unsightly. From 
that time Bishop Lamy, reassured upon the actual state of 
his Vicar-General, took more leisure in his rapid march. 
Leaving Doyle's rancho, it was agreed that the travelers on 


that day would go no further than Pueblo, about twenty- 
five miles. / 

" Wb had promised ourselves," continues Archbishop 
Sali)ointe, " to take a good view of that city, so recent and 
already so much talked of. We had a map of the city, a 
second New York, with splendid streets and blocks, banks 
and public buildings, parks and public gardens, all with 
high-sounding names. Eager to see the wonderful city, 
we hasten our march. What deception ! What do we see ? 
A few miserable huts of frame. On one of them was writ- 
ten, in large letters', with charcoal, upon a board, the word 
Saloon. By whom were these huts inhabited ? We knew 
. not. So we left the city behind us and went about two 
miles further and for the night camped in a cool place 
on the low and grassy banks of the Fontaine-qui-bouille, 
a limpid little river which rises north of Pike's Peak, forms 
the Ute Falls, just above Manitou, and rushes madly over 
its pebbly bed until it loses itself in the Arkansas Eiver 
.east of Pueblo. The place was indeed v^ ry beautiful, and 
far better than the city we had just left." 

The journey was continued the next day, but no habita- 
tion was to be found before reaching Cherry Creek, close 
to Denver. All was a waste where now stands Colorado 
Springs and all rising stations along the D. and E. G. 

The travelers, although in constant fear of robbers and 
Indians .who then infested that country, nevertheless met 
with no accidents, and were subject tp no inconveniencies 
excepting the trials incident to their laborsome mode of 
travel, the crudeness of camp cooking, and sleeping under 
the stars of heaven. After several days of travel they 
reached safely the end of their journey and knocked at the 
house of their sick friend^ 

Vicar-General Machebeuf, who has never known what it 
is to remain. idle, was already on his feet, and, hobbling 
on crutches, came along himself to open the door of his 
modest dwelling. What was bis surprise at beholding his 
Bishop? He had had no advice of his coming, and. 
hardly expected to see him. His joy was great, and 
expressed itself in exclamations of joy and thanks. He 


said he felt so much the better since their arrival; in fact, 
saw to everything himself, as Father Raverdy had to attend 
to the missions. The travelers remained five days with the 
sick Vicar and then thought of their return journey. 

This was made more at leisure than in going. They 
took time to visit TJte Pass, the Fontaine-qui-Bouille, or 
as it is now called, Fountain river, they saw Monument 
Rock and the Garden of the Gods: Nothing disturbed 
them but the reports about Indians, which all proved false, 
but still deprived them of sleep. In the return as well as 
in the coming, provisions were scarce; the gun was then 
put into requisition and the hares and rabbits of the neigh- 
borhood had to make up the dificiency in provender. 

" I never shall forget," says Archbishop Salpointe, "how 
the Bishop seemed to enjoy those meals consisting only of 
a rabbit roasted at the end of a stick, eaten without salt or 
pepper. I thought this mode of life exceedingly hard, 
because I was still young in the missions, whereas they 
seemed of familiar occurrence to my Bishop." 

Thus did good Bishop Lamy forget himself and at all 
times care for those who were under him in this vast field 
of New Mexico, confided to his paternal ministrations. 



Bishop Lamy .Undertakes a Journey op Four Thousand 
Miles, with Ebv. J. M. Coudert for a Companion. 

In the year 1859, .as I mentioned before, the missions of 
Arizona having been annexed to the Diocese of Santa Pe, 
Bishop Lamy had sent there his Vicar- General, Father 
Machebeuf, to settle the missions of Arizona, with the 
ordinary of Sonora, under whose directions they had been 
up to the transfer made by the Holy See to the Bishop of 
Santa Fe. But the Vicar-General having contracted ma- 
larial fevers was obliged to return to Santa Fe, and the 
missions were left without shepherds. Hence the anxiety 
of the father for his remotest, as well as for his nearest 
children. He must see them himself, he must encourage 
them, strengthen them in the faith, and procure pastors 
for them. To these ends he had applied to the Fathers of 
the Society of Jesus at San Francisco, and a promise of 
to send Fathers was made. But who can tell the anxiety 
of a Father? These were the two great objects of a journey 
of more than four thousand.miles, made aglmost altogether 
on horseback^ amidst a thousand difficulties, open to the 
brutal savagery of war-like Indians and of the wild beasts 
of the forest. But all this was as nothing to the zealous 
Bishop. He must go, he must comfort his children, he 
must procure for them the means of salvation. 

On the 26th day of September, 1863, Bishop Lamy left 
his Episcopal city, with his traveling companion and sec- 
retary, the Eev. J. M. Coudert. They started on horse- 
back; two servants followed with covered wagon, for pro- 
visions. Their first stay was at La Isleta, where the 
Bishop administered the Sacrament of confirmation to a 
number of Indians. This excellent parish was -then in 
charge of the Rev. Felix Jovet, who died there in 1865. 
From Isleta the ^Bishop and suite went to Ciboyeta, and 
there also on October 1st, he administered confirmation, 
the Parish Priest being Eev. Augustine Redon, at present 


Rector of Antonchico. Six days afterwards he left Cibo- 
yeta for the Fort of El GallOj'fsubse'quently changed to 
San Bafael. Don Francisco Chaves was then in com- 
mand of the Fort, as Lieutenant-Colonel. The Bishop 
and suite remained the guests of the commanding officpr 
for several days, awaiting the departure of three compa- 
nies for the west, to accompany the Bishop. It can only be 
justice to say that Don Francisco Chaves, did all in his 
power to receive and entertain the travelers with becoming 
dignity. The three companies of soldiers were placed 
under the command of Major WilliSj^and thus escorted the 
travelers set out on their long journey. 

The first camping ground was at Aguafrtcucanyon, from 
which they made the ascent of the steep and rugged moun- 
tain of Zuni, and then descended to camp at the foot of 
Inscription Rock, where they spent one whole day visiting 
the curiosities of the place. This rock is located at the end 
of the range, and forms, as it were, the opening of a large 
cave in the shape of a church with arched ceiling of great 
altitude. A wall extends from the entrance towards the 
north about one hundred feet high and six hundred fe»t 
long. Its name come from being, covered with inscrip- 
tions. Some of them are quite old. One, under the date 
of 1626, runs thus: "Aquipasso N. con los carrcs del rey, 
en caminopara Zuni."* 

One under date of January 25th, 1729, is of a Bish- 
op of Durango, whose name, is effaced, on his way 
t6 visit the Zunis. Early the day after, the travelers 
reached a large and beautiful spring called M 
Oyo Del Pe&cador, which is situated at the head of 
the great valley of Zuni and forms the head of the fine, 
though small river that waters the valley. Close by on 
each side are the well preserved ruins of two ancient 
Pueblos, probably of those which formed the famous seven 
cities of Ciboya, of which the capital was undoubtedly Zuni, 
where it is,'Snd as it is. 

The next day, the Bishop, eager to do good wherever he 
went, left his companions at the Pescado, and, escorted by 

• Here passed N. with the king's wagoas, on his way to Zuni. 


four soldiers, started for the Pueblo of Zuni, si^ miles dis- 
tant. There he was received with great demonstrations of 
joy by the Indians, and the four soldiers came back to their 
companions who, more leisurly, with Father Coudert and 
the servants, traveled a few miles more and encamped on 
the banks of the Zuni river two miles from the Pueblo. 
The next day Father Coudert, accompanied by two Indians 
sent iDy the Bishop, went up to the Pueblo. The travelers 
were received in the house of one of the Chiefs named 
Juan Septimo. This Indian, who was very rich, had a large 
mansion in which Was an extensive hall paved with flag- 
stones, which he put entirely at the disposal of the Bishop 
and Secretary. Not only the hall was at their disposal, but 
also the flagstones, for these were to be their only bed for 
the seven or eight days they remained at Zuni. Spreading 
upon them their buffalo-robes, wrapping themselves in their 
blankets there they had to sleep on a hard and cold bed 
which brought on the pains of rheumatism. Their stay at 
the Pueblo was occupied in administering the sacraments. 
One hundred children were baptized, about three hundred 
were instructed and confirmed, for the Pueblo of Zuni was 
very much populated. 

Among the reminiscences of the Bishop and Father Cou- 
dert is this amusing oije. They relate how kind the Pue- 
blos were in bringing them food prepared in their own 
way, "However," says Father Coudert, " we bought a 
carnero for seven dollars,- not to impose ourselves too much 
on the Indians, but still more for the apprehension under 
which we labored that the meat offered us was dbg 
meat. Those Indians had then and have jet the name of 
being very fond of that kind of meat. In fact, one of the 
first days after our arrival at the Pueblo, we had 
occasion to return to the camp, in order to bring from our 
ambulance some necessary clothing. On the road we met 
an Indian dragging with a cord a dog dead, or killed in 
the camp. The name they bore, added to the reason of the 
dragging of the dog to the Pueblo, the conclusion made 
was easy; hence the stomach would not retain the meat 

During his sojourn at Zuni, the Bishop witnessed the 


famoKS dance of the scalp, which these Indians celebrated 
night and day for eight days, on the occasion of the scalp- 
ing of a few Navajos whom they had surprised and killed. 
I will not describe Ihait dance because it is too complicated 
for the limited knowledge I have of it, never having wit- 
nessed but one, danced at Denver by the Utes, after they 
pretended to have scalped an-Arrapaho Indian, on the 
plains of Colorado at the head of the Eepublican river. 

Leaving the Zunis who were pleased with the visit of the 
great Tata, the traveling party set out through a long 
stretch of country without water, it being thirty-six miles 
distant. But there, in the middle of arid plains, without 
sign of creek, river or water-course of any kind, God's 
providence bad looked down upon His traveling children 
oh earthrand had placed there an unfailing spring called 
Jacob's Well. Both men and animals made haste for the 
well, which could not be seen until close to it. It had no 
vegetation around it— notliing to distinguish it from the 
bleak prairies. Imagine a large, round cavity, in the shape 
of an inverted cone, in the center of an arid desert, all 
around, the -sides being almost perpendicular, except on 
one side where a tortuous path leads to the water, so that 
not only man but even animals can go and drink of the 
icy water at the bottom. The opening is about three hun- 
dred feet in diameter, and the water is one hundred feet 
below the surface. On the north side, near the bottom, 
bubbles up a small spring which fills up the cavity below 
with the best kind of water. This sheet of water is said to 
be very deep ; but our travelers did not have the time to 
test its depth. How great is God's providence! 

The party remained there two days to give rest to the 
animals; but there, also, they learned their first lesson in 
cold ; If or, sleeping on the ground, and not being able to 
have much fire, they were first aroused by a deluge of 
water,) and they rose in the morning covered with four 
inches of snow. Still they suffered not of this acci- 
dent, as the cold was not intense. The party, starting 
in the snow, which soon melted, traveled west for five days 
without any especial incident, and reached the Little Col- 
orado Eiver. There the good Bishop, meeting a train of 


provisions belonging to Don Prefecto Armijo, of Albu- 
querque, bought a wagon with its mules, and all its mer- 
chandise, for the purpose -of procuring funds for the 
journey, but particularly in order to. travel with more 
celerity, as the soldiers, having to stay here ' and there, 
according to the commands received from their military 
superiors, caused the Biehop much delay, which became 
painful to him in his desire of visiting his flock. Of course, 
the drivers of the wagon entered the service of the Bishop. 
They therefore left the soldiers on the banks of the Little 
Colorado, and proceeded with two saddle horses, an ambu- 
lance with two mules, a wagon with eight mules, two men 
also with mules, who were to do the service agreed upon, 
the Bishop and his Secretary, A tent had been added to 
their baggage. " There," says the good Bishop, with a 
laugh, " we commenced to travel in good style." 

The spot where the travelers stood opened bsfore them 
the maghifieent vista of a bearftiful valley, watered by the 
Little Colorado. This little water-course, runs almost 
directly west ; it is a sandy, muddy, dangerous stream. 
They fpllowed it for sixty miles, when, thinking they had 
a good crossing, they undertook the passage. But lo! 
nothing was seen of some of the mules but their ears; all 
were under water and mud. and the river formed several 
such beds, so that they consumed a whole day in that 
frightful work. The next day the party reached the foot 
of the valley, where they were to bid adieu to the Little 
Colorado and turn to the northVest. Before leaving it 
they resolved to give a rest to their' jaded animals and re- 
pair the wagon and ambulance. The spot was delightful 
and comfortable; shaded by fine alamos and other trees, 
with an abundance of water and grass. There was only 
one drawback to all this — from one end of the country to 
the other, over all the lomas and mesas, as in the most 
shady nook, the Indian war-cry had been heard, and should 
they surprise a (party, all were cruelly put to death and 
'scalped, their provisions stolen and beasts stampeded. , It 
became an absolute duty, therefore, to have a constant 
watch kept, with arms in readiness, at all times. 

An incident worthy of remark must be mentioned here. 


for the Bishop and his companion nearly lost their lives. 
It was the first time that the new tent was put in use. To 
make it comfortable for the dear prelate and his com- 
panion, the servants raised an embankment around the 
tent and warmed it with live coals placed in a pan. After 
having slept a while the two tired travelers -were aroused 
by a terrible sensation in the breast and lungs. Only 
by degrees did they realize the danger they were in of 
being asphyxiated. They could not raise themselves, they 
could with difficulty leave their couch; but, going on all 
fours, and little by little, they reached the aperture of the 
the tent, where the fresh air completely revived them and 
they- were saved. " 

There they met a small caravan of Mexicans bound for 
Canon del Diablo. As this was their route, they joined 
the caravan for the sake of having more security against 
Indian attacks. They first crossed a high plateau, in which 
they suffered greatly from cold. Father Coudert, in his 
own witty way, says : " I really believe that if this be the 
Devil's Canon it must be far from Hell, for it was terribly 

This cafiion, which is now crossed by the Atlantic and 
Pacific Bailroad, was then a totally unexplored region. 
It is a deep cha^m of several hundred feet,- narrow, with 
a dry, sandy bed, without a tree or a shrub to announce its 
close proximity. How the waters ever cut such a bed in 
the rock is a mystery, for by the configuration of the land 
about it, it could never have been a great water-course . A 
probable theory is that it never was a water-course, but a 
crack'in the soil and rocks after the cooling of the immense 
volcanos, now extinct, of the Boeky Mountains. 

" I remember well the encampment near the Canon del 
Diablo," says F. Coudert, " for the good Bishop suffered 
so much from cold that he could not sleep, and had to 
walk about in order to warm his frozen feet. Fire, we 
had none. The wind was terrific; the storm lasted the 
whole night. I slept quite comfortably by the means of 
a little ingenuity. I had on furred boots; I drew a box 
under the wagon, placing the bottom towards the wind; 
I put myself in it, so that it covered my head and should- 


ers; I put both feet in one boot, and suffered little from 
the storm. It was not Diogenes in a barrel, but Father 
Coudert in a box. I have kept a vivid remembrance of 
that night on the brink of the Canon del Diablo." 

The Bishop and his suite had to cross the famous 
canon. At ooe spot there is a narrow road, partly nat- 
ural and partly cut into the rock, and with immense 
labor and danger they reached the bottom, went down the 
arroyo for half a mile where the other side was rather easy 
of ascent. Turning south, they commenced ascending the 
valley, which gradually rises, and forms, as it were, an im- 
mense base to the peak of San E'raucisoo, which had. loomed 
up before them for over two hundred miles. Late at night 
they reached the foothills of the famous mountain, and en- 
camped at the Gasnina Caves, where the soldiers had pre- 
ceded them and awaited their arrival. They found an 
abundance of water there, which was frozen, and they were 
obliged to cut the ice with hatchets. The next day, leaving 
the soldiers there, they went up the flank north of the 
San Francisco, and at nightfall reached the summit of the 
foothills. There, strange to say, is' a large spring called 
El Ojo de San Francisco. It. is directly at the foot of the 
peak. The party suffered considerably from. the cold. This 
peak appears to be of lava, dried, up quickly and cracked 
by the process of cooling. It is an immense cone, rising up 
thousands of feet in the air, and forming the greatest 
needle in the world. The camp of the Ojo de San Fran- 
cisco Was in a romantic spot. Surrounding the spring, but 
at some distance, arose a perfect forest of majestic pines. 
On the west side of the camp was a deep trough, not made 
by water, but by th« breaking asunder of immense beds of 
lava, which in the course of time had permitted pines to 
take root in the crevices. All was silent at night, men and 
beasts alike were asleep, when a terrible noise was heard 
no further than fifty steps from them; it was the cry of a 
solitary lion. The camp animals strove to break loose, and 
were cowed down at having such an enemy near and yet 
invisible in the darkness of night. 

Hastening to leave this dangerous spot, the party again 
descended . the foothills, continuing their jouraey to the 


south, going directly towards the Walkor Mountains, stop- 
ping at the mining camp of Walker, to-day the city of 
, Prescott. This journey took the travelers .twelve days, 
with nothing extraordinary to note except the difficulties of 
travel upon the plains. They passed El Ojo de Venado, or 
Deer Spring — the Turkey Canon — El Canon de la Vivora, 
or Rattlesnake Canon — the Valley ot the Cienega, where 
was establijhed- old Fort Whip ple, twenty-five miles north 
of Prescott. 

An incident happened at Turkey canyon worthy of men- 
tion, and is quite laughable. The soldiers had joined the 
party again as that country was infested with Indians. The 
whole party was under military discipline; the tattoo and 
the reveille were sounded over the trackless expanse, as it 
is done at the forts-. Immense flocks of wild turkeys had 
their roosts upon the trees of the canyon. The turkey al- 
ways chooses a dry tree if he can find it. The Bishop and 
his companion took their guns, but after much fatigue in 
the heat of the day, not a single turkey rejoiced their 
sight. At night, after tattoo, Father Coudert, with one of 
the servants, secretly determined to surprise the party with 
an iibundance of game, and they took up their position 
under a roost. The turkeys could be seen and heard oa 
the dry branches. All was silence in the camp situated 
close upon the canyon, when all were startled by repeated 
firing from the bottom of the canyon. It was Father- 
Coudert's work; he had not hit the turkeys, but had 
broken a big limb of the tree which came down and fell 
upon his head. At the same time a volley was heard from 
abuve, bullets whistled around his ears ; he crouchejl down . 
beliiud a rock with his companion and the bullets passed 
over their heads. In vain they shouted, the firing con- 
tinued, but after a while ceased somewhat so that our two 
hunters, crawling on their bands and knees scaled the 
ruo-ged side of the canyon and emerged on the level 
ground at quite a distance from the camp. There every- 
thing was astir. 

The inmates believed that it was an Indian surprise and 
were making preparations for a siege. It was soon hinted 
about the camp how the shots h^d been fired; the Bishop 


scolded, the officers laughed, and everyone prepared to 
return to his repose. But a party of officers datertnining 
to continue the hunt, went down the canyon and set 
fire to the grass to see the turkeys better, but instead of 
hunting they had to run for their lives on account of the 
flames, and the camp aroused by the danger of the spread- 
ing flames, was only saved from destruction by the united 
efforts of the soldiers and the travelers. 

The day after leaving Turkey canyon they fell in with- a 
large party of Apaches called Apaches Tontos, to distin- 
guish this clan from a number of other Apaches called by 
different names. They came through curiosity and also 
for plunder and murder, but seeing that the party was too 
strong for them, they contented themselves by extending 
their hands and saying in broken English: "How do ye do, 

The canyon De La Vivora had also one thing very re- 
markable; the side on which they came was very steep, so 
that they had to tie cords at the rear wheels, and forty 
soldiers and men were detailed to hold the wagon and 
keep it from falling upon the mules; the same was done 
for the ambulance and other wagons. So the good Bishop, 
always kind and even gay under trying circumstances, 
jokingly remarked that they had crossed the Rubicon, and 
nothing was left them but to go forward, return being im- 
possible by that road. He therefore gladly sold his ambu- 
lance to an old officer who was journeying with his family 
to take the command of the new Fort Whipple. 

There the Bishop and partyremained until December 20, 
1863. Ke sold there not only his ambulance but his wag- 
on, mules and merchandise. He was again on horseback 
at the start with two servants to wait on him and his 
companion. They spent a great deal of those days hunt- 
ing buffaloes which abounded there. The fishing was also' 
excellent and they had the satisfaction of killing an ante- 
lope. On Christmas eve they reached the camp of miners 
located on Granite Creek, near the summit of the moun- 
tain, in the immediate neighborhood, if not on the very site 
of Prescott. A large quantity of snow fell and the cold 
was intense. : A miner offered his cabin to our travelers; 


it was about eight feet square, cut in the side of the moun- 
tain, the front was made up of pieces of dry goods boxes, 
the roof of the same material which left the snow free ac- 
cess into the cabin. There they had to sleep, eight men 
all counted. But this was Christmas, so the cabin was 
turned into a chapel; the ceremonies of Christmas were 
performed; the miners stood partly within the cabin, 
others shook with cold outside ; the Bishop and his 
Secretary both celebrated mass. It is said by both 
of them with smiling faces that this Christmas on the town- 
site of Prescott was the coldest they had ever celebrated, 
having been obliged several times to bring the chalice to 
the fire to thaw the ice, and at the same time snow fell 
over the altar, so that now and then it had to be brushed 
off. They reflected truly that this birth of the Lord upon 
the Prescott mountains was by far worse than his birth in 
the stable of Bethlehem. There they left their vestments 
and other Church things, with two horses, in the custody 
of a good Mexican named Don Manuel Irrisarri. 

The Bishop resolved to visit the Mojave Indians ; to do 
this he had to cross a desert of two hundred miles, without 
roads, and surrounded by Apache Tontos, ready to fall on 
belated travelers at the first occasion. He therefore bought 
horses from the miners and procured enough provisions to 
last for six days. He relied on Divine Providence for the 
rest. The dangers they had to encounter were the Indians, 
who were oti the war-path everywhere, the imperfect roads, 
the scanty provisions, and the bad quality and scarcity of 
the water. Instead of six days, they were thirteen days in 
reaching the Mojave Village. 

They were very nearly doomed to perish in that deserl. 
A bad young Indian of the tribe of the Hualapai's 
came bearing a paper recommending him as an inof- 
fensive Indian, excellent at taking care of horses, and 
generally useful. The Bishop and party did not believe 
all that, and yet put more confidence in him than they 
ought to have done. He was given employment. On that 
day it rained, and afterward snow fell, the wind blew and 
the cold was intense. The Indian slept with the other men 
on horse blankets near the camp-fire. The horses were in 


a thicket close by. When all slept, the Indian, arising 
noiselessly, like a fox, went to the thicket and stole all the 
horses, leaving the mules tied up to trees. Not long after 
the departure of the Indian was noticed, the alarm given, 
and the men, with the mules, started after him. His route 
was quite plain on the recently fallen snow. He was soon 
overtaken, when the coward jumped his horse to hide in 
the woods. It was one o'clock in the morning when the 
pursuers returned to the camp with the horses. In the 
morning they gave notice to Col. Torres, who was camp- 
ing at a short distance with a party of engineers and sur- 
veyors. The Indian had reached the camp with his 
usual paper. The Colonel had him tied up and he 
received twenty-five lashes with a blacksnake whip for 
what he had done to the Bishop, and was ordered out of 
the place, which, however, did not binder him from re- 
turning at midnight and stealing the very best horse in 

Leaving this camp, which they named Dry Camp, on 
account of the want of water, our travelers took to a 
vast plain before them, and soon found a canon called 
Eailroad Canon, resembling perfectly the bed'of a railroad. 
They camped at the head of it. They had water, but of 
a very poor 'quality. The want of water and scarcity of 
feed had' rendered several of the animals unfit to be used 
for the travel. The following day they continued their 
journey through that valley, surrounded on a,^ sides by 
high hills, and re.'iembling a basin. They crossed an old 
road made by Mexicans crossing Arizona in 1858 to go to 
the geld fields of California. There they came in sight of 
brt)ken stoves, plates, wagon wheels, and other furniture. 
They were on the. spot of a terrible massacre done by In- 
dians, whom the Mexicans call Garroteros. That name is 
given them from using in war a club crooked at one ex- 
tremity exactly like the club used by the Mexicans in base- 
ball-playing, which they call la garrota; hence the name of 
Garrottros, because these Indians use it as a powerful wea- 
pon, in imitation of the mace of the ancients. This 
maseacre was done upon defenseless emigrants going, in 
1858, frc m to California. This knowledge rendered 


the travel somewhat painful and dangerous, but they saw 
no Indians. ' 

At night they camped on top of a high hill west of ihe 
basin they had crossed, upon a bed of the finest carneliaus 
and agates in the world ; some were quite large and of a. 
great variety of colors. There the prelate left hislitii^ 
band to start with a guide for Fort Mojave, sixty miles 
distant. The others followed, and three days afterwards 
reached the fort without accident. 

At Mojave they took several days' rest, camped close to ' 
the fort, and were well cared for by the officers. They bought 
provisions and horses in abundance, for the Bishop had 
resolved to push on as far as Los Angeles, in California, 
and even to San Francisco, regardless of fatigue and dan- 
gers, in order to procure priests of the Society of Jesus for 
his poor but interesting missions in Arizona. 

Port Mojave was then a small station built on the very 
banks of the great river of the West, the Colorado, about 
three hundred miles from its mouth, in the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. To-day the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad crosses 
the river at Mojave. Having met a gentleman from Cali- 
fornia ready to start on his return journey, the Bishop 
made arrangements with him to take their provisions in a 
wagon he had ; he procured two horses, the provisions were 
placed in a boat and safely ferried across the great Col- 
orado. There they are on the march again, well provis- 
ioned for themselves, but in Ihe hurry the provisions for 
the horses had been left out, relying upon an abundance of 
grass. But, sad disappointment! not a blade of grass is 
seen — all is burnt by the beat of Summer or blasted by the 
the cold of winter, which even there is sometimes severely 
felt. By chance they met a Californian on his way to Mo- 
jave. Upon much solicitation he consented to sell the 
Bishop fifty pounds of corn for twenty-five dollars. 

Before them was a high plateau, or rather a succession 
of plateaus, which they gradually ascended, so that they 
believed they were crossing a high part of the land 
more. At their right they beheld five ranges of moun- 
tains, which at first they thought to be one and the same. 
But each one was separated by a vast plain and each was 


different in aspect and vegetation. They left these ranges 
and plains to their right. ' One of these plains was a forest 
composed of a peculiar kind of palm tree, called the Palm 
of Saint Peter; many of them were fifty feet high, with 
trunks entirely bare, and with bare branches also, while at 
their extremities were tufts of green leaves, long and pointed 
like that of the palmilla. In another they saw an incredi- 
ble amount of hares and rabbits; so plentiful and so tame 
were they that they could easily be caught with the 

They finally reached the summit of the so-called plateau, 
when they beheld an immensity before them, extending to 
the veiy waters of the Pacific. They were on the summit of 
the San Bernardino mountain, which is very high and very 
abrupt on its western slope. Before them in the valley 
they beheld a city of considerable size and importance and 
a good road leading to it from their mountain summit. 
They took the road leading from the acclivity of the moun- 
tain, so that the descent was comparatively easy. The road 
was through a canon called the Toll Gate, for there was a 
toll gate towards the bottom, close to the residence of a 
gentlemaUi whose name they did not learn, who had built 
the road, and took a toll from travelers who went over it. 
Soon after they encamped close to San Bernardino, a town 
built by the Mormons, and a road diverging from the 
one they had followed, put the San Bernardino Mor- 
mon settlement in correspondence with Salt Lake. 

There the good Bishop had a most pleasant surprise. An 
Irish gentleman, named Quinn, who had been. years before 
one of his parishioners in Ohio, having heard of his arrival, 
hagtened to him and quickly brought the whole party to a 
good hotel in the city, where he placed them at his charge, 
and all kinds of good ofiSees were bestowed upon them. 
Mr. Quinn could not do enough to make them forget the 
lung and tedious journey they had gone through, and the 
hardships and wants they had experienced. Still, not sat- 
isfied with this, he brought them to his own residence, and 
th^se they passed several days in repose, after their severe 


It was now the 27th of January, 1864. The Bishop 
could not delay, so leaving his men in the care of Mr. 
Qainn, he took the coach with Father Coudert and started 
fi.)r Los Angeles. There they remained eight days, the 
guests of the good Bishop of Los Angeles, Monsignor 
Amat, who was untiring in his hospitality. With him 
they visited the whole city and neighborhood. They saw 
at leisure the port of San Pedro, the Mission of San Gab- 
riel, and other places. The Priests of the Cathedral were 
very kind to them. They recall with pleasure the names of 
Fathers Adams, Mutt, Duran and Laster. The pastor of 
the Cathedral, now Bishop of Los Angeles, the saintly Dr. 
Mora, was absent. 

At Los Angeles, the Bishop, having learned that the 
Jesuits who had been promised for the Missions of Arizona 
had already reached their destination by another route, did 
not go to San Francisco, as was his intention, but con;- 
menced preparing for the return journey. They passed 
again the San Gabriel, and as the coach rolled by, admired 
at their -leisure the splendor of tljie magnificent orange, 
olive and lemon trees, which seemed to' spread with 
pride their triple crop of flowers, green fruit and luscious 
ripe ones. They reached San Bernardino without acci- 

Beturned to San Bernardino, the Bishop, helped by the 
good Mr. Quinn, commenced preparations at once for the 
tedious journey home by purchasing horses and provisions. 
In their return, according to the Bishop's written notes, 
they were to visit La Paz, White Water, Aguas Calientes, 
and Indian Wells. It is not necessary to say that this 
part of the country is very hot and unhealthy, being con- 
siderably lower than the waters of the Pacific. Thence 
our travelers reached Tres Palmas, a place having then a 
name for its hot springs. Thus they journeyed without 
special incidents, or forgotten ones, for this is written upon 
reminiscences of what they saw and heard, they having 
kept no journal of the roiite. 

The Bishop relates with pleasure, however, that at a cer- 
tain station, the name of which he has forgotten, owing to 
a terrific rain, they had to find shelter under a tent ten feet ' 


square, where ten men found refuge, it being the only cov- 
ered spot in the whole station ; so that the men employed-, 
in the station and the travelers were all huddled together 
in that narrow space, where they had to pass the night. 
Tlie horses had no better fare. Tbey had been placed at 
■some distance in a stone corral, in some parts covered with 
the skins of animals left there on posts to dry. During the 
night an army of coyotes came, stole the skins, scattering 
over the hills the sacks of corn, and stampeded the horses. 
The day was nearly all spent in bringing back the horses 
and gathering up the corn. 

But, how admirable are th« ways of Divine Providence! 
Close by were two really Christian families, the Gallardos 
and Bevenos. They soon learned the adventure of the 
Bishop, and at once brought him and his suite to their 
houses. A large room was improvised for a cbapel in the 
house of Gallardos. The next day was Sunday; all was 
astir in those mansions. They prepared for the Sacraments, 
of which they had been deprived so long. Mass was cele- 
brated; all approached the Sacraments, and Confirmation 
was administered after Mass. It was a day of grace and 
joy in that settlement of two families, and the heart of the 
good shepherd expanded amidst these sheep lost in the 
desert. They had there a strange system of chimes, which 
resounded near and far, and were echoed by the surround- 
ing hills. It consisted of three bars of steel of different 
lengths, fastened by a wire, within an iron triangle, making 
music not at all disagreeable to the ear. Early in the 
niorning they were aroused from their sleep by one of the 
family striking lustily upon the steel bars and calling every- 
one to Divine service. 

/ There a valuable acquisition was made to the small com- 
pany, by the arrival of Mr. Leon Pambeuf, who joined 
the travelers. Mr. Pambeuf is now residing at Antonchico, 
]Sew Mexico. Leaving Gallardos they proceeded towards 
Weaver, a mining camp having a great name at that time. 
Weaver is fifty miles south of Walker, and one- hundred 
miles south-east of La Paz. A vast desert, little known 
and difficult to travel, separates the two places even to this 
day. The days were warm; the mar jh went on, but slowly. 


The Bishop bought an ambulance at La Paz but it could 
hardly proceed. It was perhaps the first time that such a 
vehicle essayed to cross the desert. 

All arrived without any mishaps at the mining camp at 
Weaver. As the party were to be detained there two weeks 
by urgent business, it was decided that Father Coudert, 
with Leon Pambeuf for a companion, should go north to 
Walker and bring back the church vestments left there 
during the previous December. They were soon ready and 
the day after the arrival, early in the morning, while the 
caravan formed a more permanent encanapment under a 
rock, near a spring of water, the two travelers set out for 
their adventurous journey of fifty miles and return. The 
country was then overrun with politicians on a tour among 
the various camps. Some of them deaired to join themselves 
to the traveling party, and it was agreed that they would 
wait for them at the first water, seven miles distant. As 
the day advanced and the politicians did not make their 
appearance, our two heroes set out by themselves, because 
the place was too favorable for a surprise by Indians. They 
traveled the whole day without rest, and yet could not cross 
the breadth of the valley. High hills surrounded them, 
they felt that they were watched by the Indians, so they 
stopped only late at night, and went into a thicket at some 
distance from the path', the night being dark, hoping thus 
to deceive the scalpers; they slept on the ground, supper- 
less and fireless, one standing guard while the others slept. 
At the dawn of day they left their cold bed, and knowing 
that they were in the neighborhood of the redskins, for 
they saw recent tracks of them, they did not turn from 
their road to reach some water that was about two miles 
distant, but spurred on their horses to reach a spring that 
was in the next valley. They had to pass at the foot of a 
high hill, from which the whole valley could be surveyed 
at a glance. On that hill were the Indians; it had even 
seemed to them that they had perceived some heads. They 
reached the water on an open and high prairie which could 
be watched on all sides. Mr. Pambeuf lit a fire and pre- 
pared breakfast, while thepriestwithagun on his shouldei*. 
attended to the horses. 


After breakfast the two men started and in the same creek 
found a camp of miners, six in number. They had formed 
some paths going from one mine to another. They lost 
sight of their route, traveling then upon rocks and took a 
by-path, which disappeared after two miles. Not wishing 
to turn back, they faced north and for the whole day 
ascended the mountain they had before them. They 
reached its summit after dark. They were on a vast divide 
running east and west, and throwing the water courses 
north and south. They found there a hollow place where 
there was good wood and frozen snow. They started a large 
fire, thawed the snow and took a comfortable supper, after 
which they had a sound sleep till daylight, when Father 
Coudert could recognize Granite Creek, on which was 
Walker's mining camp. At nine o'clock they reached the 
house of Don Manuel Irrisarri, where the vestments had 
been left more than two months before. The first question 
of their host was^ " Where do you come from?" "Prom 
Weaver." " What news have you of the massacre on the 
road?" 'We heard of no massacre." The evening before, 
news had been brought to the camp of the killing of eight 
men, three Americans and five Mexicans, who had left 
Walker to go to Weaver, and had been surprised by a party 
of Apache Tontos and all murdered and scalped. The same 
news had been brought to Weaver, and this was the reason 
why the politicians did not start and had failed to reach our 
travelers. But why did they know nothing of the massa- 
cre ? For a very simple reason. From Weaver to Walker 
are two roads, one passing west of the hill mentioned 
above, the other on the east, quite close to its base and 
meeting a few miles further. Father Coudert and com- 
panion had taken the east side road, and the massacre had 
taken place on the west side. 

Who can depict the^ anxiety of the good Bishop when 
such news was brought to the camp ? He mourned his 
priest whom he considered as already put to death by the 
Apaches. As usual he found relief in appealing with tear- 
ful prayers to heaven. No doubt his prayers were heard, 
for his secretary was safe at the house of Don Manuel. 
He found the church vestments, but the Bishop's horse 


and his own, with all the mules of Don Manuel had 
been stolen by the Arabs of the American desert of the 

After one day of rest, the travelers, with three Mexicans, 
who desired to go to Weaver, left the hospitable roof of 
Manuel Irrisarri and set out for the return journey. When 
they arrived at the forking of the roads, they deliberated a 
moment to know what path they should follow. The opin- 
ion broached by Father Coudert, that the path of the mas- 
sacre was more secure, prevailed. It became|clear to all who 
knew anything about Indians, that having committed a 
crime on the path, they were hid at some distance from it 
to avoid a surprise. In ascending the western slope of the 
dangerous hill, they met about sixty miners who'had come 
there to avenge the death of the travelers, and bury the 
dead. They were returning to their mines having failed 
to meet the enemy. When they reached the place of the 
massacre they could see close by the road the graves of the 

" We have been told," said Father Coudert to me, "that 
one of the victims, a Mexican, was horribly mutilated. 
They cut his arms and legs in pieces, opened his breast and 
ate his palpitating heart. The reason of this particular 
cruelty was that he defended himself more bravely than 
the others, and also because they found on his feet Indian 
mocassins, he having taken, some time before, a prominent 
part in an expedition of United States soldiers against the 
Indians, whom they had routed and cut to pieces. " 

On the seventh day after their departure the travelers 
reached Weaver, to the great joy of the good Bishop and 
amid the congratulations of the whole camp. There was 
now no reason for delaying in Weaver, and they proposed 
to start for Tucson, two hundred and fifty miles distant. 
No rest was taken. The tent was folded the next morning, 
the wagons were made ready, and at night they camped on 
the very place where to-day is located the town of Wicken- 
burg, close to a spring called elj^nto del Agua, the Point 
of the Waters, because after this they had to travel eighty 
miles without water on a dry and arid plain. In order to 
suffer less from the want of that element, the Bishop an- 


nounced the departure at four o'clock in the afternoon. 
They traveled the whole night, and in the evening of the 
next day reached el Rio Salado, near its junction with the 
Gila. It is a large and deep stream, but the- bed being 
rocky, it was crossed without difficulty, and "the caravan 
encamped on the banks of the Gila, the water of this 
river being far better than the brackish water of the Salado. 
There they remained two days to rest the animals after the 
hard drive from Funto del Agtia. 

The Bishop, preceding his party, left them to follow 
at leisure, and went directly to the station of the Casa 
Blanca, situated at the forking of the roads to Yuma and 
Prescott. . This station adjoins the village of the Fimas. 
The Maricopas are located two miles lower, also on the 
Gila. Leaving their place of encampment, they ascended 
the right side of the river. The Maricopas flocked around 
them to sell them some provisions and mares. Among 
other objects for sale they had the finest kind of wheat, 
which was remarkably clean. Thes.e Indians, as well as 
the Pitnas, were then good Indians, clean and decently 
clothed. Tradition said that the Pimas and Maricopas, 
about twenty thousand strong, although not Christians, 
were of an irreproachable morality; but alas! tradition, re- 
lates, too, that there is a disastrous change in their morals 
since the close approach of civilization. 

These Indians are remarkable for their dexterity in ball- 
playing. Their ball is a round stone, of the size of our 
common baseball. They throw it with the bare foot at 
incredible distances, always on the run, without stooping 
to take the ball, but passing their toes under it and throw- 
ing it while on the run, while the adversaries run as swiftly 
as they can to precede the thrower, their best man taking 
the lead. Thus they go on a perfect run over the smooth 
road and return. Their hair is fine, glossy as silk, and 
curly. The reason of this is that they keep their head cool 
by smearing it with mud, thus having a plaster which 
covers their head. When afterwards they wash their head 
they have the finest kind of hair, glossy, but invariably 
curly, in both men and women. 

From Casa Blanca the travelers hastened through El 


Zaritan, on tbe Gila, El Agua Azul, on the plain, south of 
the Gila, El Picacho, renowned for the numberless attacks 
made upon its inhabitants by almost every tribe of the 
desert, reaching in good time El Charco del Yuma, thir- 
teen miles from Tucson. There the Bishop was met by 
Father Messea, S. J., with a troop of horsemen, who, with 
great demonstrations of joy, firing of guns, etc., escorted 
the prelate to Tucson. Two miles from the city, Father 
Bosco with a numerous company came to meet their pastor. 
The reception was grand and was carried on with as much 
pomp as the city could afford. All formed in line, men 
and women on foot, with their children, led by Father 
B.osco, the horsemen led by Father Messeg. ; all entered or 
stood around the new church commenced by Father 
Donato, the Sanctuary having been covered with a canvas 
by Father Bosco, while the balance of the church remaineii 
uncovered. This- solemn entrance of the first pastor into 
Tucson, which in the near future was to become an epis- 
copal city, took place on the Feast of St. Joseph, March 
19, 1864. The Bishop, with his usual kindness, addressed 
words of blessing to the multitude eager to see and 
receive the blessing of their first pastor. Fathers Bosco 
and Messea, of the Society of Jesus, were the two mission- 
aries sent .from San Francisco, and who had arrived about 
two months before. Father Messea being pastor of San 
Xavier del Bac and Father Bosco remaining at Tucson. 

Three weeks were spent at Tucson and vicinity. The 
Sacrament of Confirmation was administered at Tucson 
and at San Xavier. This magnificent church, built of 
burnt adobes, stones and bricks, keeps to-day all the splen-- 
dor of the antique Moorish architecture. It will repay the 
reader to peruse a pamphlet, admirably written by Arch- 
bishop Salpointe, telling the history of San Xavier del 
Bac. The deserted towns of Tubac, Tumacacori and 
Casa Blanca, on the Sonoita, near old Fort Buchanan, 
now on the very line of the railroad to Sonora, are all 
in the neighborhood of Tucson. 

On the Monday of the second week in April several 
companies of soldiers started en route for !New Mexico, 
under the command of Captain Johnson. The Bishop and 


suite put themselves under their protection. Both of&cera 
and soldiers were kind to the Bishop, and rendered him ■ 
many services on the way. Oq the route, without any spe- 
cial notice, were passed Cienega, San Pedro, Sulphur 
Springs, Dragoon Springs, Apache Pass, or Fort Bowie, 
Cienega San Simon, El Agua Escarrada, La Estation de 
la Sierra de los Burros, the Cow Springs, Rio Miembros, 
Fort Cummingg, and finally the Pecacho and La Mesilla. 
From thence the Bishop let the soldiers go their way, and 
went to Las Cruces, where he spent a few days, ad- 
ministering confirmation, as also at Dofia Ana and Fort 
Selden. As the Jornada del Muerto was to be crossed, the 
Bishop procured two fresh horses from Father Donato, 
who was then stationed at Las Cruces. As we have seen, ' 
Father Donato was a Franciscan friar, who had com- 
menced the church in Tucson; but, compelled by sickness, 
he removed to Las Cruces, and in 1866 was massacred with 
great cruelty by the Indians between El Paso and Chi- 

Starting in the evening from Selden, at about midnight 
they encamped at Perrillo ; early in the next morning 
they reached El Aleman^ but-- as there was not enough 
water they went out of their course to the Ojo del Muerto, 
where the balance of the day was passed. They visited 
Fort MacCrea, in the neighborhood, and the next morning 
they reached San Marcial, Fort Craig and Socorro, which 
was reached at three o'clock in the morning. The kind 
Father Benito Bernard, since dead, was absent from home, 
but returned during the morning. The Bishop reached 
Socorro much weakened by wants of every kind; in fact, it 
was feared for his life on the road between Fort Craig and 
San Antonio. He became so weak that he could not stay 
on horseback, and was in a kind of comatose sleep, hardly 
breathing, and unable to proceed, notwithstanding all the 
careful attention and ministering anxiety of his traveling 
companion. From San Marcial the Bishop was alone with 
Father Coudert, the others having been left behind to pro- 
ceed at their own leisure. Having left Socorro in the 
afternoon, they passed the night at Jojita, fording the Rio 
Grande at Alamillo ; thence they made a flying visit to. 


Father Ealliere at Tome, and, spurring on, they reached 
Albuquerque for the night. The next day they went to 
Bernalillo, and late on the same day they reached Santa 
Pe, April 28, 1864, having spent six months and two days 
in the entire journey. 

Thus did the good shepherd, at his own peril, go and 

search for his sheep scattered upon the desert; thus did he 

reap holy fruits from his wants and sufferings. Eternal 

honor to such men, who are willing to sacrifice their lives 

. for the well-being of those confided to their pastoral care. 



Bishop LiMr PfiocaKES Sisters op Chakity. 

The good Bishop has returned from his long and tedious 
journey, but his mind is not at rest; the zeal of the House 
of God burns his heart; the good of the souls and bodies 
of those confided to "his eare stands now before him. There 
is no house for the fatherless, no house for the poor orphan; 
no asylum for him who has been struck with sickness, no 
hospital. This want must be supplied. So the kind father 
of all goes to work at once. It will coat him large sums — 
it matters not ; th'e asylum, the hospital, must be had for 
orphan and the infirm. He is needed in his diocese — he 
cannot absent himself; but he knows the charity and kind- 
ness of the daughters of Saint Vincent. He at once opens 
• a communication by letters with the Superior of the Sisters 
of Charity at Cedar Grrove, near Cincinnati, Mother Jo- 
sephine, whom Divine Providence had again placed at 
the head of that community for the good of all.* His terms 
are accepted, and on August 21, 1865, four Sisters bid 
adieu to the mother house and to their dear companion 
sisters to start for the extreme West in search of new fields 
of labor — in search of new wounds both of soul and body, 
that they might staunch them and alleviate their pain. 

The four heroines who thus left all they held dear to go 
far away at the command of duty did not seek notoriety; 
but their names are framed in the hearts of many a hard 
toiler, who recovered under their modest roof the health 
of both soul and body. Their names were: Sister Vicenta, 
as Superior, and Sisters Theodosia, Pauline and Catherine. 
They left Cedar Grove on the 21st of August, as already 
mentioned, and traveling by rail, they went to Omaha, 

* Mother .Josephine has since gone to her jeward. She was a woman 
of superior qualities, and as a Beligious her humility and unostenta- 
tious piety were models for all. 


Cheyenne, Denver, Pueblo, without taking any rest. At 
Pueblo they took the stage, and reached Santa Fe in the 
middle of September, 1865. 

As soon as the Sisters reached Santa Pe they were gi^ en 
possession of the house destined for them, and named it 
St. Vincent. They at once opened both the hospital aud 
the asylum with a good number of patients and orphans, 
but for several years they had considerably more of the 
latfer than of the former. 

The number of patients and orphans increased steadily, 
and in a few years as many as seventy-three patients and 
sixty children received shelter at once under their hospit- 
able roof. It was thought necessary to build a larger hos- 
pital with ampler accommodations. Many adobe houses, 
classrooms, wards, etc., had been added from time to time, 
but these were insufficient, 'jod had sent a true help iu 
Sister Blandina. She collected everywhere, and, with the 
permission of the Bishop and the Superiors, and under the 
guidance of the local Superior, work was commenced on 
the new hospital on the feast of St.' Blandina, 1877. It 
went slowly up. Collections were made and donations re- 
ceived, fairs were held, and concerts, etc., given in order 
to raise money to finish the hospital. It was roofed in in 
1880. The interior work was finished in 1882, and the Sis- 
ters took charge on the 15th of March of that year. 

It is a large brick building completely furnished with all 
modern improvements. It is heated by steam, but the 
steam power and the kitchen are in separate buildings, leav- 
ing the hospital perfectly free of all danger of fire, and 
nauseous smells. It is three stories high, with a fine cupo- 
la. The wards and the private rooms, as well as the various 
passages, are kept scrupulously clean, which adds much to 
the comfort of the patients. The orphans remain in the 
old adobe buildings. 

The Superiors who have been at the head of the commu- 
nity since Mother Vincenta, are Mothers Theodosia, Augus- 
tine, Cephas, Eulalia, Sebastian, and Gabriella, the pres- 
ent incumbent. Only two Sisters have died since they 
came to Santa Pd. Sister Martha, who went to the Lord 
March 18, 1884, having received the Sacraments of the 


church on the day previous, St. Patrick's day; and Sister 
Josephine, who died at Albuquerque the 28th of August, 
1885. ■ , 

Many improvements to the house and grounds have been 
made in the last few years. The improvements in front of 
the hospital commenced in February, 1883, and are not 
yet completed, but even in their unfinished state they add 
greatly to the beauty of the hospital. It will be shortly a 
delightful place for convalescents to rest their weary limbs. 
To the small band of four who came first many have been 
added since. On the 18th of February, 1870, Father Man- 
necani obtained two Sisters from Cedar grove, and two 
from Santa Fe. He had prepared for them a large and 
convenient house, and schools were at once started, which 
are even now in a most prosperous condition. Sister 
Augustine was appointed Superior. 

Albuquerque needed schools, and the late Father Donatp 
Gasparri called the Sisters to teach schools in his mission. 
Mother Josephine, accompanied by three Sisters, went 
there in September, 1881, and at once opened a large 
school. Under the fostering care of Father Salvador Per- 
sonne,a new school-housewas commenced in what is called 
the old town, and is now finished, ready to receive pupils; 
whereas a fine academy has been erected in the new town. 

Not only Albuquerque and Trinidad desired the services 
of the good Sisters of Charity, but Pueblo having a large 
body of workmen in the rolling mills started there by the 
A. T. and S. F. E. E., could not expose them to the 
dangers of machinery without having a place to go in case 
of an accident. The Jesuit Fathers built a fine church 
close by, and Sister Theresa was sent to preside over the 
house. They have built a large hospital, and the commu- 
nity is in a flourishing condition . 

Thus the work goes on. The Sisters have accepted the 
Parochial Schools of the Sacred Heart Church in Denver, 
where they have also a large select school. 

In 1885 they took hold of the schools of San Miguel, 
and through the kind efforts of Father Fayet, the pastor, 
they have already another bright page to add to the history 
of the labors of the Sisters of Charity in the West. So it 


is true that when a master hand sets the machinery in mo- 
tion it goes on every day improving and turning out fine 
work. The master hand of the venerable Archhishop has 
set in motion the whole religious work in this vast territory, 
left almost stagnant under the Mexican occupation, and 
the good work goes on and will go on, and the many helped- 
by him in every way will call blessed his venerable but not 
decrepit old age. 



Council of Baltimore. — Bishop Lamy Brings to Rome the 
Acts of the Council. — His Fight with In- 
dians on the Plains of Kansas. 

The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore was to take 
place in the year 1862, but owing to the difBculties caused 
by the Civil War it could not take place. Peace having^ 
been restored in 1865, Cardinal Barnabo, Prefect of the 
Propaganda, in a letter to the Most Bev. Archbishop of 
Baltimore, Dr. Spaulding. ordered him to convene a Coun- 
cil for the year 1866. The Archbishop of Baltimore, in a 
letter to all the Archbishops, Bishops and others in the 
United States entitled to a seat in that Council, convoked" 
them for the first Sunday in October of that year, feast of 
our Lady of the Eosary. 

Bishop Lamy, with the Theologian he had chosen, the 
Eev. J. M. Coudert, left Santa Fe in the middle of Au- 
gust, 1866, and taking in on his way, Leavenworth, St. 
Louis, Alton, Cincinnati, Louisville and Loretto — in all of 
which places he stopped some days — finally arrived at Bal- 
timore three days before the convening of the Council. 

The great work of the Second Plenary Council of Balti- 
more is known to all. Its praises have been sounded by 
eloquent pens, and it would be out of my purpose to speak 
of that venerable and holy assembly, following the voice 
of the Holy Ghost for the good of the people. Saffice it 
to say that Bishop Lamy took, a deep interest in it. His 
voice was heard on several occasions to the edification of 
all, and his suggestions had great weight with the Fathers 
of the Council, He was so much appreciated by them that 
he received the singular honor of being intrusted alone to 
bring the Acts of the Council to the Holy See for its appro- 
bation. Bishop Lamy, whom we have seen lately so great, 
BO noble, in the poor cabin of the miner or the hut of the 

CATHOLIC church: in new MEXICO. 107 

Indian in the deserts of Arizona, was as much in his place 
in the halls of the Vatican, at the feet of the holy Pontiff, 
Pius IX. 

Having performed his duty so well as ambassador of the 
Plenary Council of Baltimore to the Holy See, he now 
thinks of his dear Santa Fe. His heart longs to be again 
with his flock. But he will not return empty handed. He 
must bring more laborers into that far distant field of the 
church. He must endow his diocese with those men who 
forever stand .foremost in the battles of the church against 
Satan and the world — the Jesuits. Having an interview 
with the late lamented Father Beckx, the Superior General, 
the account of whose death is- still fresh in the minds of 
most of my readers, things were easily settled, and three 
Fathers and two Brothers, of the Province of Naples, were 
to come and found a mission in the Far West. The three 
Fathers destined for the mission were Fathers L. Vigilante 
as Superior, Kafael Bianchi and Donate M. G-asparri. The 
two Brothers were Prisco Caso and Rafael Vezza. 

Never before had the Company of Jesus penetrated into 
New Mexico. The Jesuits had possessed houses, however, 
and others had been offered them, but all on the frontiers, 
and never in the interior, for the country had been con- 
fided by the Holy See to the F-athers of Saint Francis. 
Indeed, in 1842, if I remember right, a petition had been 
sent to General Santa Anna, President of the Republic, to 
obtain Jesuits, and by a presidential decree he had per- 
mitted them to enter into several provinces, particularly 
into New Mexico, as the decree says, " to civilize and con- 
vert the Indians." 

The Jesuit Fathers and Brothers, having been called; 
from their different places of residence, met their Bishop^ 
in France. There a large accession of priests and laymen, 
was made to the travelling band. The Bishop sailed from- 
Havre on the steamer " Europa," of the Transatlantic 
Company, May 9, 1867. The company consisted of Rev. 
J. M. Coudert, his Secretary, Father Paoli, a priest from : 
the island of Corsica, the Jesuit Fathers Gasparri and Bi-- 
anchi, Father Stratigo, an Italian clergyman, and the- 
Jesuit Brothers Oaso and Vezza ; alao the students in mi- 


nor orders, J. B. Brun, A. Fourchegu, F. Lestra and 
Noverfc, L. Remuzon and Chabrier, who had received ton- 
sure only, Masters Anthony Lamy and J. B. Lamy, nephews 
of his Lordship, the Bishop. There were also the father, 
mother and sister of the Eev. J. B. Brun. May 19th, being . 
a Sunday, the Bishop celebrated Mass on ship, and deliv- 
ered an instructive sermon to his hearers, upon the sancti- 
fication of the Sunday. On the next day, near Newfound- 
land, the vessel entered into a kind of gulf called by the 
sailors "The Devil's Place," They suffered a terrible 
slorm and nearly perished. All suffered greatly from the 
effects of the storm. 

Early in the morning of May 23d, the young band saw 
for the first time that American land, the future theater 
where was to be acted the stirring scenes of their apostolic 
labors. They landed at New York at four o'clock in the 
afternoon. Leaving that city as speedily as possible, they 
spent the Sunday of May 25th at Baltimore. There the 
Bishop left under the care ofvFather Dubreuil, Superior of 
the Seminary of St. Sulpice, Messrs. Fourchegu, Lestra, 
Novert, Eemuzon, Chabrier, Ant, Lamy and Romulo Ei- 
chera, a young Mexican who had completed his classics in 
Montreal, and at 9 o'clock, P. M., May 30th, left Baltimore 
for St. Louis, where he arrived with his suite on Sunday 
morning, June 2d. In St. Louis he was joined by three 
Sisters of Loretto and two Brothers of the Christian 
Schools. On the 6th of June they went west to Leaven- 
worth, where they were all lodged at the Bishop's house 
and were most kindly treated by Bishop Miege, while the 
Sisters were entertained at the Academy by the Sisters of 
Charity. There they met with Fathers L. Vigilante and 
J. De Blieck, S. J ., who were also destined for the missions 
of New Mexico. They had also in the party Paul Beau- 
bien, a young Mexican from the St. Louis University, en 
route for New Mexico, Jules Masset, the Bishop's business 
agent— finally, Antonio and Antonito, two Mexican serv- 
ants, the whole party consisting of twenty-six persons. 

"On Friday, June 14th," says Father Gasparri in his 
narrative of the journey, "we started from Leavenworth 
in caravans, that is to say, in wagons and carriages, for 


New Mexico. We were in the carriages and the provisions in 
the wagons." They started by what is called the Lecomp^ 
ton road, passed the Stranger creek without difficulty, and 
on the 18th of June they camped on the banks of Grass- 
hopper river, at what is called " Indian Mills," close to the 
house of James Quaney, an excellent Irish Catholic. On 
the 19th they passed through Indianola, in sight of Topeka, 
the capital of Kansas, and on the 18th reached St. Mary's 
of the Pottowatomies. The good Jesuit Fathers of the 
mission, with all the boys, came to meet the party several 
miles from the college. They greeted the good Bishop and 
preceded him with banners and music to the gates of the 
hospitable mission, where they were welcomed by the 
Fathers. The Sunday was spent at St. Mary's, to the 
great joy of all. 

The Bishop and party left St. Mary's on the 24th of 
June. On the 29th, feast" of St. Peter and St. Paul, 
they camped a few rniles fr,om Junction City. Towards 
noon four peaceable Indians— perhaps spies — came to visit 
them, and remained awhile with them. Having, near 
Junction City, crossed the Smoky Hill river, they bid 
adieu to civilization. They were now left to their own 
resources against Indian attacks. Now commenced the 
life of the plains. Now they began to se^ve their severe 
apprenticeship at Western missions. Now was the time to 
strengthen their- nliids and hearts, as well as their bodies, 
in order to successfully encounter a thousand privations 
and a thousand dangers. 

On the 1st of July they came up to a Mexican caravan, 
eighty wagons strong, and the men, who were well armed, 
received the Bishop of Santa Fe with every demonstration 
of joy and veneration. The caravan formed two lines bet- 
ter to resist any possible attacks from Indians, and the 
Bishop's caravan was placed in the center for the sake of 
protection, whether on the line of march or in camp. Every 
precaution was taken against a surprise. Guns and pistols 
were loaded, and knives were made ready for a hand-to- 
hand fight. The captain of the whole caravan, Don Fran- 
cisco Baca, was all over, seeing to everything. He sent 
out scouts who reported that there were a thousand Indians 


in the neighborhood, who all manifested a desire for mas- 
sacre and pillage. The party encamped near a pool of dark 
and muddy water, the sole drink for both men and animals. 
There two Mexicans having gone out of camp to seek their 
oxen which had s'trayed during the night, became them- 
selves lost in the immensity of the desert. Men were sent 
after them and brought them back fo camp only after 
twenty-four hours of, hard searching. There, also, they 
met the buffalo in large herds and killed quite a number of 

On the 14th (Sunday) the good Bishop celebrated mass 
and delivered a pathetic address to his hearers, in which he 
impressed upon them the necessity of bearing with forti- 
tude the evils of this world, and of giving strict obedience 
to orders. It was an impressive and solemn sight_to see 
that band of travellers prostrated on the desert, sur- ■ 
rounded by enemies, raising their hands and hearts to 
Heaven for grace and protection. -About this time symp- 
toms of cholera were noticed, and for two weeks it raged . 
in the camp, carrying off a number of victims, but sparing, 
through God's interposition, the great majority of the 

On the 16fh they camped about three miles below Tort 
Dodge. Several times in the journey they had sighted 
little bands of Indians, but now they gathered closer'to the 
travellers, not unlike those wolves which a,re said to gather 
far and near to attack strayed sheep in the desert. On 
the 17th, at dark,^while the animals were being unhar- 
nessed from the wagons, they were attacked for the first 
time by about fifty Indians. The day, before they bad at- 
tacked a train a few miles further west. This train was 
coming from New Mexico. The Indians, in that affray, 
killed two, and wounded three, men, and stampeded five 
hundred and thirty oxen. Another train, composed of- 
fourteen wagons and twenty-five men, all Americans, five 
of whom were soldiers sent from Fort Dodge as an escort, 
■ were two miles before them. There some renegades, lying 
in ambush behind some brush, fell suddenly upon them as 
they were preparing to encamp, and discharged a vol- 
ley in upon them. The Americans, nothing daunted, pur- 


sued them upon the hills near the camp, and for two hours 
fought them determinedly. It is not known how many In- 
dians fell, but in the travelling party a young American, 
sixteen years old, was killed by being stabbed in the heart, 
and a soldier was severely wounded, while several of the 
Americans received slight wounds, and an ox was Jjilled. 
After two hours combat the Indians disappeared, and the 
next day attacked the caravan of the Bishop. It was near 
the Arkansas river that these fifty mounted Indians ap- 
peared suddenly upon a hill at a short distance and rushed 
madly upon the party, shouting and discharging their fire- 
arms. The good Mexicans of the caravan turned upon 
them and chased them some distance without loss. 

Every one knows the Indian's war tactics. He never 
fights in regular battle. He tries to surprise his enemy, if 
he be not constantly on the look out ; to harrass him ; to 
kill any man or animal lagging- behind. He comes with 
all the fleetness of his steed, discharges his arms, (and he 
is generally a good shot,) and retires with the same fleet- 
ness, his body entirely hid behind his horse, so that you 
hardly see his foot and hands. He returns on the first 
favorable occasion to renew his peculiar skirmish. 

On the 18th twenty soldiers from Port Dodge came with 
an ambulance to carry away their wounded comrade. They 
took ten men from the caravan to follow the Indians and 
chase them from their dens, but after travelling five or six 
miles, they returned without having encountered them. 

The 22d day of July was a memorable day for our trav- 
ellers. At ten o'clock in the morning Jules Masset was 
seized with cramps, an infallible symptom of the cholera. 
He was taken care of by the band of levites, and his body was 
rubbed. The poor boy called in vain for his mother, and 
at three o'clock he was no more. But at two o'clock, while 
he was dying, they camped closer to the Arkansas river, at 
a place called Cimarron Crossing. About fifteen men, who 
had been detailed to ascertain the whereabouts of the sav- 
ages, returned at full gallop, pursued by more than four 
hundred Indians. Two of the men escaped being made 
prisoners by going at a distance to turn around to camp. 
Two Indian spies had been seen awhile before by the sen- 


tinels. The Mexican caravan had already crossed one 
wagon from the left to the right bank of the Arkansas. 
The Indians were lying down upon their breasts in the 
weeds, like snakes, when they were seen by the scouts. 
Their idea no doubt was to let other wagons cross, and then 
attack without danger the balance of the party in camp, 
and seize the booty left defenceless upon the other bank. 
But the wary sentinels discovered them to soon. 

"The Indians," writes Father Brun in his journal, 
stopped a short distance from our camp, and forming into 
a batallion, held a council of war. After a few moments 
of apparent hesitation, the Indian batallion, mounted on 
fine horses, approached, but a general discharge from our 
American rifles, which were of very long range, forced 
them to retreat. Soon, however, they returned and were 
driven back again. Then ten Or twelve detailed from the 
batallion paraded a few yards from us. They passed before 
our camp with an incredible celerity, discharging their 
firearms as they rushed by. Some even came on foot, in 
order to induce us to pursue them, and then to fall upon 
us, who had not more than thirty horsemen. 

" With the same intention they had placed on the hill, 
in sight of the camp, the five hundred and thirty oxen 
stolen a few days.before, from the outgoing Mexican train. 
They hoped we would leave camp to go and fetch them ; 
but they were frustrated iii their design, for the Bishop 
and the captain of the caravan gave express orders that no 
one should go outside of the stockade, which was made of 
wagons bound together, forming an oval figure, with the 
animals in the center. The good Bishop was everywhere 
encouraging the men to fight bravely and defend themselves 
to the death if necessary. He held a gun in his hand, and 
gave orders with great coolness and deliberation, showing 
to all an example of courage and calmness. Every one 
was at his post behind the wagons, and when the Indiana, 
in single file, passed before us, shaking their bucklers 
made of buffalo skins, and discharging their guns or shoot- 
ing their arrows, we returned their fire, and observed sev- 
eral fell from their horses, and immediately, dead or only 
wounded, were surrounded by their companions, replaced 


on their horses and taken away. "We could hear the bull- 
ets whizzing over our heads, several were imbedded in the 
wheels of the wagon, but fortunately none of us were 

" Father Coudert distinguished himself among all by his 
coolness and valor." 

Here I must interrupt for a moment the interesting jour- 
nal of father Brun, to relate an incident that was told me 
about this melee with the Indians. My informant stated 
that an English speaking Indian came nearer than the 
others to the camp. Father Coudert shot at him alone. 
He fell, but was surrounded at once by his comrades. 
Father Coudert had hit him in the shoulder as he arose 
from behind his horse, and this proved to be the decisive 
point in the battle. Who could he be ? Keport said that 
it was Charley Bent, the son of Governor Bent, and one 
of the principal chiefs. This young man had been thor- 
oughly educated in the Catholic Universities, but he 
strangely enough, preferred the wild life of the Indian to 
the sedentary Jife of a whlteman. It was said also that he 
was soundly berated by the Governor, his father, for par- 
ticipating in this skirmish, and had to promise liim never 
again to attack any caravan in which there were Bishops or 
priests. How true all this is I know not. 

" After more than three hours of such a fight," continues 
Father Brun, " the Indians iVent off in small bands, sep- 
arating from one another in order the better to avoid our 
bullets. Some of them on horseback stayed behind the 
others, as if to dare us to follow them. This is a trick of 
the Indians, who thus simulate a, flight, and then suddenly 
return to attack the camp, which may be exulting over its 
victory. About thirty of us, forgetting this ruse of war, 
left the camp in order to explore the battle field, examine 
the five dead or mortally wounded horses; the spoils of the 
Indians, saddles, bridles, the beautiful slippers adorned 
with precious stones of the principal chief, arrows, bows 
and quivers, pistols and guns, etc. Suddenly an Indian 
troop, with the swiftness of the wind, turned back on the 
imprudent men, who, however, noticed the movement soon 
enough to flee back to the camp. The Indians, frustrated 


there, turned back and joined their main body about a 
mile away. Then they crossed the river to rest, and to 
lob at leisure the wagon left alone on the other side of the 
stream. There they remained facing us on the right bank 
of the river till nine o'clock, when they set the wagon on 

" Daring that time some Indians lurked around our camp 
screaming, ' Amigos !' a new tjick of the enemy to draw 
lis to them. But we took care not to notice them, and a 
fusillade was the only answer to their 'Amigos !' We were 
now shooting in the dark, but it is to be believed that some 
never uttered a cry any more. During' the night, having 
placed the animals between the camp and the river to let 
them graze a while, some Indians swam the river stealthily 
to stampede them. But our sentinels were on the alert 
and could not be caught by any such stratagem. In a 
moment the whole camp was on foot, a volley followed the 
swimmers, and the Indians, whether in the river or on its 
banks, finally abandoned their designs. 

" We learned sometime after that three of the principal 
chiefs had been killed and one severely wounded. As for 
us, we were protected in a visible manner by Divine Prov- 
idence. Having for hours fought an enemy five times as 
numerous as ourselves, and more accustomed to fight, we 
did not have a single member of our party wounded. Our 
good Mexicans attributed this wonderful protection of Grod 
to the presence of Bishop Lamy and the missionaries, and 
showed still more zealously, if possible, their respect and 
devotion to him. 

" Some days later, when we reached Trinidad, we read 
in the Denver ' Gazette': ' The caravan of Dr. Lamy, Bishop 
of Santa Fe, composed of fifteen missionaries and five Sis- 
ters, have been attacked by the Indians. Monsignor and 
his priests have' been massacred and the religieuses led 
away captive by the savages.' 

" It is thus that histpry is written." 

" On the 23d," writes Father Gasparri, " we continued 
our journey, and toward evening Sister Alphonsa Thomp- 
son, a native of Kentucky, fell sick. Night setting in, we 
camped, and she being very ill, received the Last Sacra- 
ments. The other Sisters waited on her all night, and the 


next day we had to continue our journey. She was put into 
a wagon with the four other Sisters, and when we had 
halted, she died at ten o'clock July 24th, being not quite 
twenty years old. We all felt most sensibly the death of 
that Sister, so much the more as no remedies could be 
procured in these desert plains to relieve her. On the other 
hand the Indians would not let her die in peace. She was 
buried in the evening, near the road, in a place well 
marked and known to the Mexicans. A coffin, the best 
that could be had under the circumstances, was made for 
her, and all accompanied the body in procession, a Jesuifc 
Father performing the funeral ceremony, and the Bishop 
assisting. Before leaving the place a cross was planted 
over the grave. The poor Sister had expressed a desire 
not to have her body left there, but to have it taken on 
with us to New Mexico, fearing perhaps that the -wild In- 
dians, finding it, would desecrate it. But this was not 
done, above all because the cholera had broken out among 
us, but also because it is said that the Indians always 
-respect dead bodies. God, moreover, would protect in a 
special manner that body, in which had dwelt a soul as 
pure and innocent as Sister Alphonsa's." 

Referring to the sad deatji of Sister Alphonsa, Bishop 
Lamy wrote : " The youngest Sister of Loretto died on the 
24th of July, from fright, as I consider it, caused by the 
attack of the savages. She was eighteen years of age, well 
educated, and a model of virtue." * 

The following lines written by an unknown friend in 
the Ave Maria, were handed to me. Let them be the epi- 
taph of dear Sister Alphonsa : 

* Three yearj afterward, while pastor at Topeka, Kansas, I received 
a note from Bishop Lamy, requesting me, on my frequent yisita on the 
plains, to find the grave of Sister Alphonsa. Aoaompanied by two 
men of those who were cmplfoyed by. the Eailroad near Cimarron 
Crossing, I forded the rirer and following the old track, quite plain *■ 
yet, we saw, or thought we saw, the grave by the roadside, the spot 
being marked by a higher tuft of grass. The cross, however, had dis- 
appeared, burnt probably by the Irequent prairie fires. We could not 
delay long, as the evening was advancing, and we had strict orders 
fronfthe camp not to stay long for fear of the Indians. The fact is 
the track layers were working with tools as usual, but having a gun 
close by to repulse attacks, which were quite frequent. The grave 
was in good condition. 



[Suggested by the death of a Sister o( Loretto, while crossing the 
plains in the train of Bishop Lamy, which was attacked by Indians.] 

A lonely grave on the desert plain, 

Where the howling winds and the driving rain 

Chant their wild requiem over my head, 

As if I were one of their early dead — 

Here is the chosen spot for me 

To rest in my virgin purity. 

Till the Bridegroom cometh 'to call me hence 

To be crowned' in his heavenly i esidence. 

Hush ! a footstep over my head ! 

I remember the hurried and stealthy tread. 

'Tis the savage Indian- tracking the train 

That is passing across this desert plain. 

I knew by the sound of the warlike shriek, 

'Tis one of tribe I came to seek. 

Oame to this howling wilderness, 

With a sister's love to redeem and bless 

Their outcast life ; by uq hope enticed. 

Save to win their savage souls to Christ ; 

One of the tribe for whom I gave 

My life in return for this desert grave. 

They met us passing the lonely road : 
" Ho, ho ! " they cried, " 'tis the white man's code ; 
" Let us murder and rob the pale faced crew, 
"And do unto them as they also do." 

Sick unto death with the fever's blight, 

I heard the sounds of the deadly fight. 

Visions of foul dishonor rose 

In my woman's fear, and with terror froze 

My virgin blood. Too weak to fly 

From the dreaded fate, I prayed to die. 

Then my soul fulfilled its virgin vows 

And escaped to the arms of its heavenly spouse. 

When God shall call for His martyred dead, 
From my desert grave I will lift my head. 


On the 26th it was resolved to leave behind the Mexican 
caravan because- it was too slow, and also to free them- 
selves from cholera, which continued raging among the 
Mexicans. It was a touching separation. The chiefs of 
the caravan came to the missionaries, all together recited 
the Litanies of the Saints in^thanksgiving for their wonder- 
ful preservafion. All having knelt down on the bare 
ground, the Bishop gave them his benediction, which they 
received with great faith and devotion. At four o'clock in 
the evening, leaving their companions, they travelled the 
whole night for fear of attracting the attention of the In- 

The travelers were looked upon by all whom they met as 
ghosts from the other world, the news of their massacre 
having spread everywhere. On the 3d of August they were 
in sight of Trinidad. Father Yermare, the Priest of 
the place, came a long distance to meet his Bishop and 
confreres. On the 5th, having crossed the Eaton, they 
were met by Father Guerin of Mora, with Fathers Bousset 
and Bourdier, then in minor orders. 

From that time the coming of the Bishop to his Episco- 
pal city appeared as a triumphal march. "From all the 
parishes processions of men with their pastors at their 
head came out to welcome him. They came five oi; six 
leagues distant to meet their father. As soon as they saw 
him they gave shouts of joy, then falling on their knees, 
they kissed his hand asked his blessing. The women and 
children came afterward on foot. Thus they crossed Mora, 
Sapello, Las Vegas and San Miguel. 

On the 15th of August, an auspicious day, from the hills 
they beheld Santa Fe. There the demonstrations of joy 
surpassed anything witnessed elsewhere. More than two 
hundred horsemen went to meet their Bishop at a distance 
of twelve mil^s. They served as an escort. The Christian 
Brothers, with their bands, were the first ; other bands of 
music followed ; the Bishop entered the Cathedral, at the 
door of which the Vicar (3-eneral welcomed him in the 
name of the clergy, after which the Bishop solemnly gave 
his benediction to the people. Glorious Prelate, amidst a 
well beloved clergy and a well beloved people ! 


His heart was now full. He had brought with him a 
new and powerful element of education for that dear 
people whom he so much loved. He had enriched his dio- 
cese with a religious Order that was to do so much for the 
cause of religion. In one word, he had brought with him 
the Jesuits. 



The Jesuits in New Mexico. , 

The Jesuits in New Mexico date the history of their la- 
bors from the 15th of August, 1867, Feast of the Assump- 
tion of the B. V. Mary. 

The Bishop, in his ijiterview with the Father General, 
had promised to give the Jesuits a property in their own 
name, with a church and a house. On the journey he told 
them that he had determinecl what church he would give 
them, and after reaching Santa Fe, he informed them, 
through the Vicar General, that the place he had deter- 
mined upon was Bernalillo, and that while Father Vigilante 
should stay some days in Santa Fe to arrange matters, they 
would proceed at once to Berna,lillo, and there be installed 
by the Vicar himself. 

On August 20th, after a few days rest, accompanied by 
the Vicar Eguillon, Fathers Eafael, Bianchi, Donate, M. 
Gasparri and the two Brothers, Caso and Vezza, started for 
Bernalillo. Father de Blieck had come only for his health, 
and did not belong to the mission. The travellers passed 
one night at the Pueblo of Santo Domingo, and early on 
the second day they reached Bernalillo, and Father Eguil- 
lon brought them to the house of Don Pedro Perea ; but 
in the evening they insisted on going to their own house, 
no matter in what condition it should be. The Vicar Gen- 
eral solemnly installed them on the following day. The peo- 
ple were called by the sound of bells to divine service, and 
the Fathers were presented to the people as their pastors. 
Father Eguillon afterwards returned to Santa Fe. Father 
Vigilante, the Superior, arrived on the 1st of September, 
and the Company commenced work among the faithful. 
Their life in Bernalillo was not different from that of any 
otherparish priests, attending to all the spiritual needs of 
those' confided to their care. Besides Bernalillo and its 
missions, they had for the present the charge of Pefia 
Blanca and its missions, and Jemez and its missions. 


Besides the administration of theSe missions, the Bishop 
had confided to them the care of teaching moral theology 
to a young seminarian. They commenced in September, 
and two more were added in October. They remained till 
the commencement of December, when the Bishop called 
them to Santa Pe to ordain them. In the meantime many . 
among the Mexicans who knew the Society and her col- 
leges in the East, were anxious that they should open' 
schools of some kind. On the other hand", the clergy de- 
sired that they should take good and virtuous young men, 
with capacity for study, so that they might be prepared for 
the priesthood, and have thus a native clergy, and not to 
depend entirely upon priests from Europe, who could not 
always be obtained. But besides those ideas, thus ex- 
pressed, nothing more was done on the subject. 

The Bishop at that time desired that a retreat should be 
given to the clergy. Father de Blieck, who had been placed 
at the service of the mission by the Father General, was 
charged with it. The retreat took place at Santa ie in 
November ; after which another was given to the Sisters of 
Loretto, and a third to the Christian Brothers. Afterwards 
sermons and lectures were given for a while at the Cathe- 
dral to 8,11 persons who spoke the English language. These 
lectures took place on Sundays and Thursdays. 

In the meantime Father Eguillon, V. G., expressed the 
desire that a mission. should be given to the people of Santa 
Fe. Fathers Bianchi and Gasparri were accordingly sent 
to take charge of it. A triduum was given first to the 
children, commencing on the 8th of December and lasting 
to the 12th, when they all started in grand procession from 
the Cathedral to the church of our Lady of Guadalupe. 
An immense concourse of people were present, and Father 
Gasparri addressed them with much unction, producing 
the best effects. On the evening of that day commenced 
the mission, which lasted to the 25th, the great day of the 
Nativity of our Lord. The two missionaries spared no 
means, no labor, to produce fruits of virtue in the souls of 
their hearers. And indeed these fruits were wonderful, 
and the number of those who took part in the general com- 
munion on Christmas day was incredible. Cold and indiff- 


erent hearts were warmed up to fervor, persons Jiving a 
bad life perhaps for years, gave up their evil ways, mar- 
riages not" sanctified, by the blessing of the church were 
redressed, many evil habits were given up, so that really 
the population of Santa Fe, always animated by a religious 
spirit, on account of the zeal of its clergy, became a model 
people, anzious to frequently receive the Sacraments, in 
an edifying spirit of faith which characterises the Catho- 
lic population to this day. Both the Bishop and his Vicar 
Oeneral expressed themselves as highly satisfied with the 
mission. . 

Besides the actual gopd of the mission in casting out 
evils from among the people, a permanent effect was pro- 
duced by inculcating a great devotion toward the B. V. 
Mary, establishing the practice of the Eosary, enrolling all 
or nearly all, in, the Scapular, so that the zealous priests 
afterwards not only continued these practices, but ladded 
others, such as the devotion to the Sacred Heart, the So- 
dality of the Children of Mary, and the various Sodalities 
for both males and females, which in their way increase 
the devotions of the people of Santa JPe every day, and 
make the parishes in which these pious societies are fos- 
tered the models of all others in the diocese. 

These missions, almost unknown before the advent of 
the Fathers, were now asked for everywhere. "When that 
of Santa Fe was given, the Legislature was in session, so 
that the greater part of the Senators and Representatives 
took part in the exercises. Afterwardsj on returning' to 
their homes, they spoke to all of the happy fruits produced 
by the rnission, and. kindled in the hearts of those who had 
not attended the desire of enjoying the same benefits. The 
Fathers commenced at home in the first months of the 
year 1868, they gave missions at Pefia Blanca, Santo Do- 
mingo, Jemez, Los Corrales and Bernallilo. At that time 
— it being Lent — Father Gasparri started to visit all the 
missions. He confined himself to Bernalillo and Jemez 
because a priest had just been appointed pastor of P^fia 
Blanca. His success was great. But before he could visit 
them all, it was thought of transferring the Jesuits to Al- 
buquerque. The affair thus came to pass. 


The Bishop had promised the Father General to give the 
Jesuits a church, with a house and a piece of land, as their 
own property. When he sent them to Bernallilo, which 
contained these three requisites, of course he promised to 
give them the title thereto as soon as possible. ''But 
there arose difficulties which hindered him from it. The 
church, house and land were within the property of a cer- 
tain Dona Dolores Otero, the deceased wife of Don Fran- 
cisco Perea, who at his death left it to his two children yet 
minors. When the church and house were built the title 
of that property had been given to the Bishop, as also the 
possession of it. But the title had bfien lost before being 
registered. The children being minors neither they nor 
their guardian could either sell or give. Now the Bishop 
could" not give to thej Fathers a title before he obtained it 
himself, consequently he desired to transfer them to an- 
other point, Albuquerque. For that purpose the Bishop, 
on March 16, 1868, went personally to Albuquerque. The 
next day he returned to Santa Fe, and soon after had an 
interview with Father Augustine Truchard, then parish 
priest of Albuquerque. Whether he was the first to offer 
bis resignation, or simply gave his consent, is uncertain, 
but before leaving Albuquerque he made some conditions. 
But for ■ this transaction it will be better to quote Father 
Gasparri's word in his " Historia de la Compania de Jesus 
en Nuevo Mejico," a work never yet printed, but kept in 
the archives of the Society. Here are his words, trans- 
lated from the Spanish : 

" The conditions were that we should assume his debts, 
leaving in eur favor a property belonging to him, that he 
should remain in Albuquerque until after Easter, and that 
we could not enter it until after his departure. The first 
condition was the heaviest. The debt amounted to three 
thousand six hundred dollars, a part of which was to be 
paid in silver. The property which he gave us — the house 
and the land — had not cost him more than two thousand 
dollars in paper, and he sold it to us at that price . The 
sixteen hundred dollars were to be paid thus : eleven hun- 
dred in paper and five hundred in silver. 

" All appeared well to Father Vigilante, who desired 


this change more than all, and accepted all the conditions. 
He went to Albuquerque during Holy Week, bought the 
property for two thousand dollars, obligating himself to 
pay the balance, and, perfectly satisfied, wrote to the 
Father General and to the Patner Provincial what he had 
done. It is certain that he received answers very little 
satisfactory, but he never manifested it. At the time ap- 
pointed, Father Truchard left Albuquerque. He came to 
^Bernalillo on the 20th of April, and on the following day 
Father Vigilante, accompanied by Father Bianchi, went to 
Albuquerque in order to take possession of the new parish. 
Father Gasparri and the. Brothers remained in Bernalillo 
one week more to settle all business." 

Being now established in Albuquerque, the Fathers sol- 
emnly celebrated the exercises of the month of May, and 
on the last day — Feast of Pentecost— a great number of 
people approached the Sacraments. , F. Gasparri gave, in 
the month of August, a retreat to the Sisters of Loretto, . 
to the clergy, and to the Christian Brothers. While in 
Santa Fe the Rev- J. Guerin, parish priest of Mora, 
asked him to give also the exercises of a retreat to the 
people of hig parish. The Rev. F. Gasparri agreed" to 
give it .in December. So at that epoch he and Father 
Bianchi started, passing through Santa Fe and San Miguel. 
At Las Vegas the pastor took them in his carriage to Mora. 
That mission produced great fruits of piety in that place 
and neighborhood. It eommeneed on the morning of the 
8th of December by a short mission to the children, which 
terminated by a general communion on the Feast of Our 
Lady of Guadalupe. That evening the great mission com- 
menced. After a few days Father Bianchi felt ill, but he 
continued as usual, to preach and hear confessions. It was 
so very cold that the Precious Blood froze in the chalice j. 
but despite all climatic severities he was at his post. On the 
18th he preached a remarkably eloquent sermon on Death.. 
After the sermon he went to bed, never to rise from it 
again in life. He grew fatally sick. Two doctors were, 
called, and said he was attacked with pleuresis. Father 
Guerin and Father Bourdier, were unremitting in their 
attentions to him. A third physician was called, but it 


was of no avail. On Christmas Day he received Holy 
Communion with unusual devotion. Soon after, the symp- 
ptoms grew alarmingly worse, and on the 29th — Feast of 
the Holy Innocents — a little after five in the morning, 
he gave up his beautiful soul to God. In the afternoon 
his body was carried to the church, where ail the people 
flocked to see the dead missionary. The concourse was 
immense. News of the event was spread at once. Father 
Fialon, of Sapello, and Fathers Coudert and Peyron, of 
Las Vegas, came in due time to take part in the solemn . 

Tuesday, December 28th, 1868, the good missionary was 
buried in the church of Mora, i"n the sanctuary, on the 
epistle side. Father Gasparri celebrated mass, assisted by 
Fathers Fiallon and Lujan, retired priests in Mora. All 
the stores remained plosed on that day; an immense con- 
course of Protestants and Jews, as well as of Catholics, 
were present. Everyone felt that a saint had died. Even 
•the two legislative bodies, in session at Santa Fe, passed 
appropriate resolutions', and put on mourning to the end of 
the session; a fact so much the more remarkable, since it 
is seldom done, and moreover several of the members, both 
of the Senate and the Assembly, were not Catholics. 

Father Eafael Bianchi was born at Casentino, Province 
of Aguila, in the Kingdom of Naples, December 19, 1836. 
He studied the classics in the schools of the Society at 
Aquila. He entered the novitiate at Conochia, August 7th, 
1852. He studied rhetoric and philosophy while teaching 
grammar at Naples. Expelled with other Fathers from 
Italy in 1860, he was sent to France to study theology. He 
was ordained priest at Laval, September 19, 1863. The 
following year he was sent to Spain, passed one year at 
Maurega, taught philosophy at Tartosa, and started for 
New Mexico, April 18, 1867. In a word, he was a man of 
as great regularity as the most fervent novice. He was 
held in great esteem by all who knew him. 

The mission of Mora finished on the day of the Nativity 
of Our Lord. Ijb produced much good among the people. 
There the first mission cross was planted in New Mexic6. 
The death of Father Bianchi was the seal of that mission, 


and confirmed many in their good resolutions. Afterwards 
Father Gasparri, assisted, now by the pastor, then by his 
assistant, Yisited all the missions of that parish, and the 
number of those who did not approach the Sacrament was 
exceedingly few. 

In the meanwhile, another mission was preparing at 
Taos. This parish needed a mission, 'especially on account 
of a certain schism which existed there. This schism had 
started in this wise: Father Jose Antonio Martinez had 
been appointed parish priest of Taos in the year 1826. He 
governed that parish till 1856, when he spontaneously re- 
signed his palish into the hands of Bishop Lamy, and 
another priest was sent to administer the parish. Subse- 
quently, owing to some difficulties between him and the 
new pastor, he regretted having resigned, and claimed to 
be the rightful pastor of Taos. Not having the use of the 
church, he built a chapel in his own dwelling, and there 
performed all the duties of parish priest. As he had been 
many years parish priest of Taos, and his family being one 
of the most noted in that district, he drew to himself a 
party, either in Taos or in the missions that were attache.d 
to Taos. 

For many reasons Biehop Lamy, after the accustomed 
canonical admonitions, was compelled to suspend him, 
along with Father Lucero, who acted as his assistant. This 
exasperated him and strengthened the spirit oi schism, 
which the zealous priests who succeeded one another in 
Taos have not been able entirely to destroy. Thus re- 
mained affairs to the death of Father Martinez, July 28th, 
1867, who gave no sign of submitting to the Bishop, and 
demanded, before dying, to be buried in his own chapel, 
and Father Lucero buried him, acting as pastor of the 

The Bishop, being at Taos in October of the year 1868, 
proposed to Father Gabriel Ussel, the parish priest, to have 
a mission given to his>people. Then Father Gasparri was 
in Mora; he was communicated with at that place. Father 
Ussel himself coming to Mora. Both went to Sapello, 
where was the Bishop, in order to take his advice on the. 
subject. By that time Father Bianchi was dead, and it 


wa8 decided that F. Gasprarri would go alone and preach 
that mission. He left Mora with Father Ussel on the 12th 
of January, 1869. The mission forthe people commenced 
on the 17th and lasted two weeks. The difficulties and 
prejudices were great, but happily the family of Martinez, 
the most notable in the parish, gave a bright example of 
obedience, and was one of the first to ask to be reconciled 
with the Church. After this the difficulties were much 
less, and the mission produced abundant, fruits among 
the population. 

In Albuquerque affairs continued as usual. Father Vigi- 
lante, being alone, asked for Father Boucard, but he be- 
came sick and left, and Father Foui'chaigu, who was then 
in Santa Fe was sent to him to help in the best way he 
could, as assistant. On the return of F. Gasparri, Father- 
Fourchaigu returned to Santa Fe. The Bishop in the 
meanwhile reinstated Father Rodriguez, who lived close to 
Albuquerque, and gave him permission to say Mass, and 
also to administer the Sacraments, so that he could help 
the Fathers. 

In March, 1869, the Jesuits commenced paying their 
debt. Things became more prosperous. At once schools 
were started, the church was improved, and much needed 
work was done, both at Albuquerque and in the missions. 
Soon after. Fathers Leone and Tomassin came to give 
their help, and enabled F. Gasparri to start on a Mission 
among the Navajoes, in July, 1870, with a view to establish 
a permanent mission among them; but the promises made 
by the Government failed, he was obliged to abandon the 
mission, and it was passed over to the Methodists. 

In the Spring of 1871 great preparations were made, to 
celebrate with becoming pomp the Feast of the Sacred 
Heart. At the same time took place the Jubilee of Pius 
IX. The alms given for the Jubilee were employed in 
making a silver heart with a gold cross. The names of 
the donors were placed in it, and the whole was sent to the 
Sovereign Pontiff. 

In the same year the Rt. Rev. P. J. Maehebeuf, Vicar 
Apostolic of Colorado, offered Conejos, a beautiful location 
in the San Juan Valley, to F. S. Personne, who had lately 


come from Europe, and in the next year Father Pinto, 
also recently arrived, was given the mission of Pueblo. In 
the meantime the Fathers in Albuquerque were not idle. A 
far more convenient place fof a cemetery had been pur- 
chased, three miles from the city, on elevated ground, and 
there the corpses of thousands who had been buried for 
centuries in a low, swampy place were removed in a most 
solemn procession. 

In the year 1872 also that Father Gasparri commenced 
to print books for the benefit of the church and mission. 

Soon after was established a novitiate, which later on 
was removed to Las Vegas, and finally discontinued alto- 
gether for want of means — the young novices being sent 
since that time to Florissant, near St. Louis, the great 
novitiate of the Province of Missouri. 

In 1873 was formed a new parish from missions belong- 
ing to Mora, Sapello and Antonchico, located at La Junta, 
and dedicated to the Sacred Heart. Eev. F. Tomassini 
was appointed its first pastor. 

The year 1874 was occupied in giving a number of mis- 
sions to the various parishes of the diocese. One given in 
Las Vegas produced such fruits that the whole population, 
through a select committee, desired the Fathers to estab- 
lisha college there and remain among them. Don Manuel 
Romero offered a house for that purpose until such time 
as they would be able to erect a suitable college. The 
offer was accepted; and soon after several of tlie Fathers 
removed to Las Vegas, while F. Baldassare, the new Su- 
perior, remained at Albuquerque with the others. 

The, first number of the Revista Galolica was published 
January 2d, 1875. It was then severely handled by all the 
papers, impious and malicious, published in Colorado and 
New Mexico. It nevertheless withstood their attacks, and 
has continued to increase and prosper, till now, under the 
editorship of learned Fathers, and the carefulness and pa- 
tience of Father Ferrari, its publisher, it has become one 
of the foremost weeklies published in New Mexico. 

The generous population of Las Vegas continued asking 
for a college ; offers of help were made; land was pur- 
chased, and in November, 1877, Eev. Salvador Personne 


was installed as first President of the institution in the 
house of Don Manuel Eomera, which answered the pur- 
pose for a while. There the President, and his faculty 
dwelt for one year, commencing with twenty-five boarding 
pupils and about one hundred day scholaTS. 

On the 2l8t of June, 1878, the foundations of the new 
college were laid, and in November of the same year it was 
blessed and made ready for occupation. The faculty con- 
sisted of Eev. Salvador Personne, President, with the 
Keverends Alphonsus Rossi, S. J.; Lawrence Pede, S. J.; 
A. Minaci, S. J., and two auxiliary Brothers. God alone 
knows the privations and sacrifices which the little band 
had to endure. Three thousand dollars were given by sub- 
scription, but where the balance came from is the secret of 
God; but we do know that they built and paid for their 

' In December, 1882, the Rev. Dominic Pantanella, S. J., 
was appointed President of the College, and Father Per- 
sonne was called to replace the lamented Donato Gasparri 
in Albuquerque. His work there was great. He com- 
pleted the new Church of the Immaculate Conception in 
New Albuquerque begun by Father Gasparri;, and built 
with brick and of beautiful interior finish. The church in 
Old Albuquerque was also rendered one of the finest of the 
Territory. ' ' 

In August, 1874, Father Pantonella, having beeii called 
to establish a new college in Morisson, near Denver, Col., 
Father Personne returned to Las Vegas as President, being 
replaced in Albuquerque by the Very Key. Father Balda- 
sare, S. J.* , 

The college is increasing yearly. It had, in 1883, as 
many as ninety boarding pupils and two hundred and 
seventy-five day scholars. The year 1884 was more bright 
than ever. W-hen classes commenced there were seventy 
pupils present They came from various places— 'Mexico, 
Chihuahua, Sonora, Texas, Colorado, each furnishing 

* Father Baldasare was afterwards stricken with paralysis and went 
back to Sunny Italy to recover his health, but in vain. He has gone 
to his reward. 


separate contingents — and some even came from Phila- 

I never would finish this interesting subject were it not 
my space is limited. I must mention two great losses 
suffered by the Society and I will have done. I allude 
to the deaths of the Eevs. , Diamare and Gasparri. 

The JRevista Catolica of the 29th of April, 1882, speaks 
in the highest terms of the virtues of the Rev. James 
Diamare, S. J. It says: 

"At 10 o'clock A. M. of the 25th of April, the Eev. P. 
James Diamare returned his beautiful soul to God; he was 
over 43 years of age, and had been over 17 years a member 
of the Society of Jesus. He was boin in the city of Naples, 
on the 22d of February, 1839. He studied the classics in 
the Jesuit schools of Naples. Pious always, he felt at- 
tracted to the priesthood, and entered the Urban Seminary 
in his native city. In 1863 he was ordained priest secular, 
and a year after entered the Society of Jesus. He entered 
his novitiate at Rome, and soon after was sent to Reggio, 
in Calabria, as secretary to Monsignor Ricciard, Bishop of 
that city. Later he was sent by his superiors to Sezze, in 
the Pontifical States, to teach theology. He came to New 
Mexico in October of the year 1873. ' On the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1876, he took his final vows, and made his solemn 
profession at Las Vegas. He was charged with the busi- 
ness of the Bevista, which he rendered every day more 
attractive. Sent to give missions, he took no rest; and 
Santa Fe, Albuquerque, Mexico and Texas heard in turn 
his powerful voice. He returned from Texas overworked 
and sick, and a few days later returned his innocent soul 
to God." 

Father Donato Gasparri, S. J., died at Albuquerque on 
the 18th of December, 1882.. He was 48 years of age, and 
was born at Bicarifc, in Italy, and educated at Salerno under 
the tuition of the Fathers of the Company of Jesus, enter- 
ing into the Society at the age of sixteen. He studied and 
taught in several colleges of the Society till the civil 
troubles of 1860. The revolution reached him as it did 
others, and he was sent to Laval, in France. Ordained 
priest, he was sent to Spain. Calatzud, Balaquer, Sara- 


gosa and Valencia were the various fields of his labors. 
Chosen by the Superior-General to accompany Bishop 
Xiamy to New Mexico, he hastened to Prance, and was soon 
on his way to this land that was to be the field of his labors 
and his tomb. I need not speak of his great works — they 
are emblazoned in the minds and hearts of all Catholics in 
New Mexico. May the faithful servant enjoy now the glory 
of his Master ! 



Erection of the Province of Santa Fe — Archbishop Lam? 
Receives the Pallium. 

I pass over several years consecrated by the good Bishop 
J. B. Lamy to the advancement of the Catholic cause in 
New Mexico. I say nothing of his constant journeys through 
hU diocese, the foundation of new parishes, the establish- 
ment of schools, nor of his voyages to Europe for the good 
of the people. All these things are sacredly recorded in 
the hearts of both clergy and people. I hasten to s^Deak 
of the honors conferred upon the zealous prelate by the 
Holy See after a quarter of a century spent solely for the 
glory of God and the salvation of souls. 

In the Consistory held by Pious IX, Monday, December 
21st, 1874, along with several others. Bishop Lamy was 
raised to the dignity of Archbishop, and Santa Fe was 
erected into a province, with Colorado and Arizona, 
although yet vicarates, as suffragans. 

It may not be amiss to say a few words upon the dignity 
and insignias of an Archbishop. I hope it rhay interest 
my readers, as some Catholics may read it who are una i 
quainted with the government of the -church, and who are 
sincerely anxious to learn something about the Church and 
those appointed by Heaven to guide it. 

In the Catholic Church the Episcopate is one, if we con- 
sider it under its general aspect; no one is, by Divine right, 
greater or less than another. The Roman Pontiff alone 
received of our Lord Jesus Christ himself, the founder of 
the Church, supremacy over all; not only over the flock, 
bu,t- also over the shepherds— so that he is forever the head 
of the whole Church — the Bishop of the Bishops — the chief 
of the Christian society. For the facilitation of the uni- 
versal government the Church established degrees in the 
Episcopate, and hence arises the beauty and the greatness 
of the ecclesiastical heirarchy. The Sovereign Pontiff, who 


holds the plenitude of jurisdiction in the whole Church, 
ceded, so to speak, a part of it, and among the bishops 
elevated some to a higher degree, and created thus the 
Archbishops, the Primates and the Patriarchs. 

Two things are to be noticed here. The first, which is a 
consequence of what has been said above, is that the de- 
grees in the Episcopate are of ecclesiastical right, although 
in one sense it can be said of Divine right, since Jesus 
Christ gave to the Church all the powers necessary for its 
government, and the degrees referred to are not only con- 
venient bjit necessary. The second thing, which is also a 
consequence, is that the Sovereign Pontiff can increase, 
diminish, or, even remove entirely the functions conceded 
to Patriarchs, Prinjates, and Archbishops: in one word, he 
can abolish these degrees in the Episcopate whenever 
the good of the Church demands it. 

The attributions granted to these degrees haye not been 
the same always and everywhere. In our days we call an 
archbishop a prince, or chief of bishops, in an ecclesiasti- 
cal province. Different bishops, called suffragans, form a 
province, and the archbishop at their head, is called 
Metropolitan; Many archbishops have no suffragans over 
whom to preside, nor ecclesiastical province, without for 
that cause ceasing to hold their name and rank as such. 
Also the primates hold the first rank in a nation, and the 
patriarchs over several, but in the same manner as the pri- 
mates without any jurisdiction, there are patriarchs who 
hold that nama only as a pure honor. 

In the United States, there never were, until lately, arch- 
bishops of pure title, but all were with the metropolitan 
dignity, over a corresponding province, We have now 
twelve such provinces, and no doubt, with the increase of 
Catholic population, new ones will be formed. 

Passing over what concerns patriarchs and primates^ I 
will mention that the dignity and title of archbishops arid , 
metropolitans are very old in the Church. The name of 
metropolitan comes from the ancient civil right of the Eo- 
man Empire. In it we find that the title of metropolitan 
was given to some distinguished cities, as it were cities, 
mothers of others, which enjoyed certain honors and pre- 


rogatives, and whose governors were of a higher catagory 
and jurisdiction. The Church adopted the institution, and 
hence the bishops who were appointed to such cities were 
called metropolitans^ or bishops of the metropolis, andin 
the course of time the metropolitan bishop was naturally 
given a certain rank" over the bishops of the neighboring 
cities, and thus were formed the provinces. Many councils 
afterwards confiimed this natural division. To these me- 
tropolitans, or bishops of metropolitan cities, was given 
subsequently the honorific title of archbishops, a title 
which seems to have been used for the first time to address 
Saint Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, in Egypt. 

Archbishops, in quality of metropolitans, enjoy a pre- 
eminence of honor and some prerogatives over the bishops 
of their provinces, as can be seen in the canon law, but it 
is purely a matter of ecclesiastical discipline. 

The insignias which in our days distinguish and ennoble 
metropolitan archbishops, as well as the primates and pa- 
triarchs, are the carrying of the cross and the pallium. 
These insignias in olden times were proper to the Sovereign 
Pontiff alone, as a mark of the plenitude of his power — in 
those prelates it is the mark of their greater authority. The 
privilege of the cross consists in this, that the metropolitan, 
the primate, or the patriarch can b3 preceded by the cross 
in all the territory of his province. 

As to the pallium, as it is in use in our days, it consists 
in a collar made of white wool, with two bands hanging 
over the breast and shoulders, and three black crosses on 
the front band. On the Feast of St, Agnes, January 21st, 
two white lambs are blessed in Eome, and from their wool 
some religious women weave the palliums. The Sovereign 
Pontiff himself afterwards blesses them upon an altar con-' 
tiguous to the toihb of the apostles Saints Peter and Paul, 
and they are deposited over the same tomb in a, from 
which they are taken to deliver them to the prelates. 

Without entering into a discussion of the antiquity of the 
pallium, which would be very uninteresting, I "will say .a 
few words about its use. A metropolitan archbishop 
can perform no function of his degree and positi^on 
without having received first the pallium froip the Sov 


ereign Pontiff. In olden times the metropolitans were 
obliged to visit the tomb of the Holy Apostles, in Rome, 
and there were invested with the pallium. 

At the present it is petitioned in the consistory in 
which the Pope preconises the bishops, by themselves or 
-by some one delegated for the purpose. The pallium is 
used on certain festival days, marked by canon law— it is 
personal, and serves only for the See to which the arch- 
bishop has been appointed. If the archbishop is trans- 
ferred to another metropolitan See, he needs another 
pallium; and when he dies he is vested with it, and it is 
buried with him. 

On March 16th, 1875, Cardinal Franchia sent this official, 
letter to the Most Rev. Archbishop-elect, J. B. Lamy, pre- 
conised first Archbishop of Santa Fe, in the consistory £eld 
on Monday, December 21st, 1874: 

" Illustbious and Most Reverend Sik: — The Rev. Mon- 
signor Roncetti, Chamberlain of Honor of His Holiness, 
and officer of this Holy Congregation, sent in the quality 
of Abligate to present the red beretta to the Most Rev, 
Father and Archbishop of New York, who has been ad- 
mitted by the Holy Father in the Sacred College of the 
Cardinals, will deliver to your Lordship the apostolical let- 
ters by which his Holiness has been pleased to appoint you 
Metropolitan of the new province of Santa Fe. At the 
same time your Lordship will receive the faculties which 
His Holiness has granted you and the sacred pallium. 

"In the meanwhile, I pray God to keep you in health 
for a long time. 

" Given in Rome, at the house of the S. C. Propaganda. 
-Filed March 16th, 1875." 

The ceremony for the imposition of the pallium was fixed 
for the J.6th of June, 1875. Mgr. Salpointe, then Vicar 
Apostolic of Arizona, being in New York when Monsignor 
Roncetti, Chamberlain of His Holiness, delivered the beretta 
to Cardinal McClosky, had an interview with him. The 
Roman prelate, already fatigued with the journey from 
Rome, was much pleased to delegate Mgr. SalpOinte and 
charge him with the delivery of the pallium. 


The prelate returned from New York on the 7th of June, 
and as his many duties recalled him to his- diocese, which 
he had left only for urgent reasons, it was determined that 
the ceremony should take place on the 16th. Mgr. Mache- 
beuf, Vicar Apostolic of Colorado, hastened from Denver, 
and if we consider the difficulty of travel in those days, 
and the circumstances in which the country was, the assist- 
ance was absolutely immense. The people had several 
meetings, in which were organized the various committees 
who were to give more splendor and order to the ceremony. 

The old cathedral being entirely inadequate for the 
occasion, and, on the other hand, timorous persons, fearing 
some accident, it was resolved to have the ceremony per- 
formed at the house of the Christian Brothers, or College 
of Saint Michael. The place is very large, and the whole 
range of houses having porches, was thought convenient 
against the rays of the sun. All preparations were there- 
fore made for the purpose, and in the afternoon of the 15th 
all was in readiness. The greatest part "of the clergy of the 
diocese were present — a few hsld not, on account of the 
distances, been apprized of the ceremony. 

The 16th of June was as one of our spring days here, 
clear and quiet. At the break of day the roar of the cannon 
aroused the faithful. Immediately after the band of the 
College of Saint Michael was in the garden of the Arch- 
bishop's residence and discoursed fine music, which was 
wafted upon the morning breezes. At nine o'clock the pro- 
cession was formed at the cathedral, the clergy, the Bishop, 
and the Archbishop arrived, and all the societies proceeded 
down San Francisco street to the plaza, thence turning to 
the left, went up College street and reached Saint Michael 
— all that multitude of people found room in the vast 
grounds of the College. 

At ten o'clock solemn Pontifical Mass was commenced by 
Mgr. Machebeuf, while before the altar stood the Arch- 
bishop-elect, assisted by Fathers Equillon and Gasparri. 
Mgr. Salpointe, delegated to deliver the pallium, had an 
elevated seat on the epistle side. After the Gospel, the 
Very Rev. P. Equillon addressed the people in Spanish, 
and after Mass Mgr. Machebeuf spoke in English. These 


sermons produced a great effect at the time ^upon the 
hearers, both Amiericans and Mexic^ans. 

Immediately after communion, according to the rubrics, 
the pallium was placed on the altar, covered with a veil of 
red silk, and the Archbishop put on the Pontifical vestments. 
The reading of the Pontifical briefs and letters followed in 
Latin, Spanish and English, in order to give more satis- 
faction to all. After the reading of these documents, the 
new Archbishop, vested in bis Pontifical vestments, ap- 
proached the altar, and there, kneeling down, pronounced 
his profession of faith, took the oath of office according to 
the ceremonial of the bishops, in the hands of Bishop Sal- 
pointe, delegated for the purpose of imposing the pallium; 
after which the Bishop, standing, placed the pallium on 
the shoulders of the new Archbishop, saying, at the same 
time : 

"For the honor of Almighty God and the Blessed MaPy, 
ever Virgin, of the holy apostles. Saints Peter and Paul, 
of our Lord Pope Pius IX of the Holy Roman Church, and 
of the Church of Santa Fe confided to your care, we de- 
liver you the pallium taken from the tomb of Saint Peter, 
which signifies the plenitudes of the episcopal power, with 
the title and "name of Archbishop, which you shall use 
within your church on certain days, as is determined in the 
privileges granted by the Apostolic See. " 

After this, the new Archbishop, having on the pallium, 
arose, and turning to the people, directed to them words 
arising from his very heart. They were expressions of 
gratitude towards the Holy -Father, of confusion for him- 
self thus raised without any merits of his own, of thanks 
to the clergy and people, who had taken so much interest 
in the ceremony in his honor. The Benediction was then 
given while all that multitude, be they Catholic or not, 
bared their heads under the blessing hand. 

All the people returned in procession to the ArchiepisT 
copal Palace, preceded by the band of Saint Michael, and 
that of the city, and after repeating with one voice, " Long 
live the Archbishop!" retired. The clergy, as an expres- 
sion of their love and veneration, had invited the two 
suffragans, all the clergy, and many gentlemen of the Ter- 


ritory to a bountiful banquet. A pavilion was erected in 
the garden, that never-failing monument of the Arch- 
bishop's taste and care, and there they assembled. Speeches 
in honor of the Archbishop were made by a number of the 
most prominent gentlemen, boih. Americans and Mexicans. 
In the evening a general illumination took place in the 
city. Before the cathedral were four beautiful transparent 
portraits of Pius IX, Archbishop Lamy, and Bishops 
Marohebeuf and Salpointe. Music was played on the 
plaza; the people flocked thither from all parts of the city. 
Seats had been placed for the prelates and the clergy. A 
speech was delivered in English by Mr. W. Breeden and 
another in Spanish by Major Sena. These speeches were 
much applauded. After this a torchlight procession was 
formed, and the Archbishop and his guests Were conducted 
to the Archiepiseopal residence, and the celebration termi. 
nated, the memory of which remains fresh in_the minds of 
those who witnessed or participated in it. 



Episcopal Jubilee or Aechbishop Lamy — Eeview of the 

On the 24th day of November, 1874, a few months only 
after the erection of Santa Fe into a proTiiice, was cele- 
brated the Episcopal Jubilee of the great Archbishop, he 
having been consecrated Bishop of Agathon and appointed 
Vioar Apostolic of New Mexico on the 24th of November, 

We call a shcerdotal qr episcopal jubilee the happy anni- 
versary of twenty-five or fifty years since the ordination of 
apriest or his consecration as bishop. It is not rare for 
priests to celebrate the twenty-fifth anniversary of their 
ordination, but it is rare to see a bishop celebrate the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of his consecration. For this 
reason it is the cilstom to celebrate it with pomp and 

Of late years it has become a practice in the Catholic 
world to celebrate these occasions with solemnity, and it is 
just — it is the expression of the devotion of the people for 
their pastors. We call these celebrations jubilees in imi- 
tation of those which the Church celebrates every twenty- 
five and every fifty years. To distinguish them the first is 
called the silver jubilee and the latter the golden jubilee. 
In many countries they are called silver wedding and gold ' 
wedding, and it is not without reason nor without mystery 
that Christian people here preferred the latter name to the 
former. And truly the people are right in, their preference. 
The ordination of a young priest, the consecration of a 
bishop, are greatly like a marriage ceremony. Both Sacra- 
ments have been instituted by Jesus Christ for the creation 
and raising of men to God — one is a material creation, the 
other a spiritual creation. Why do the people call the 
priest by the sweet name of Father? Because, by the 
Socrament of Baptism he begets them spiritually into the 


Church, and by the "Word of God which he dispense^ to 
them he raises them in faith and spiritual manhood. 

In the present economy of Divine Providence, although 
Jesus Christ placed His vicar, the Pope, to represent Him 
on earth, He has no less decreed that the Christian family 
should be divided into fractions under His bishops, and 
subdivided under the priests. And the Church, the Im- 
' maculate Spouse of Jesus Christ, has confided to all these, 
according to their rank. — to the Pope, the whole Church 
his spouse; to the bishops, their dioceses; to the priests, 
their parishes — so that the faithful of a parish acknowledge 
their father in their pastor, those of a diocese see their 
father in the bishop, and those of the whole world recog- 
nize the Pope as the common father of all the faithful. 

If, on the one hand, it is right for children to present 
their respects and offer their good wishes to the beloved 
. father who has been for so many years in this elevated 
pastoral ministry, it is, on the other, no less an obligation 
to give thanks to God, who -gave suet a father and has 
preserved him, and beg a prolongation for many years of 
that precious life, as the Church .chants with so much joy : 
Ad multos annos. 

The administration of Dr. Lamy in those twenty-five 
years is a bright page in the history of New Mexico, and 
has produced beneficial effects on that simple, loving 
people. The state of the Church in New Mexico when the. 
venerable Archbishop took possession of it in 1850 was 
certainly not over prosperous. But for the love of truths 
I "say that it could not be otherwise, because the spiritual 
center was so far away, at Durango, whereas the civil center 
was still further away, at the City of Mexico. The great 
distances of the two places, with their diflSculty of holding' 
communication, permitted the true principles of both spir- 
itual and civil life with difficulty to reach the itola^ed 
population of New Mexico. >In the same manner that a 
star gives much less heat if it be far off, and if its rays^and 
light are to pass through denseisloadb, iti the same manner 
the light pf faith will' be-iJireaker, and its heat will be 
'greatly diminished by being too far removed ttota. ita 
spiritual center. 


But darkness was to give way to light in this Terri- 
tory; it was to enter into a new phase, both civil and 
religious. Leaving out the civil side of the question, I will 
say a few words in review of the situation from a religious 
point of view. The bishops assembled at Baltimore, soon 
after the annexation of ^ew Mexico to the United States, 
made it a point to advise the Vatican to separate the newly - 
annexed province from the Diocese of Durango. The Holy 
See entered plainly into these views, and the separation was 
resolved upon; and the first bishop of that diocese was then 
zealously working among the Catholics of Ohio, his mind 
and views far away from the thorny crown, under the guise 
■of a mitre. How inscrutable are the ways of Divine Provi- 
dence ! 

Holy Scripture calls Our Saviour a Sun which gives light 
to the whole world, and He is essentially the light of the 
world. The same is said of the Apostles and their suc- 
cessors, certainly in a manner far inferior and by essence. 
They are suns but by participation, in so far as they re- 
ceive from the essential Sun, sind reflect in the various 
parts of the world the splendors of Jesus Christ. Now, 
from the sun two great effects are appearing, light and 
heat. As soon as the sun rises in the east he at once dis- 
sipates the. darkness of the night, and throws light upon 
all things, and shows all things in their true colors; but, at 
the same time, by the means of the heat, he gives life to all 
things, and raises them, as it were, from death to life. 
These two effects are the part of the administration of a 
bishop, as also in due proportion of any true minister of 
Jesus Christ. Among the parts or effects of that admidis- 
tration are, first, the instruction given the people upon the 
truths of our holy religion, and afterwards the administra- 
tion of the Sacraments. With the instructions is dissi- 
pated the darkness of ignorance, errors fall to the ground, 
evangelical virtues are propagated — in one word, the light 
of revelation is poured out. With the administration of 
the Sacraments men are given a new life, life is given 
the sinner through the means of grace, and in all is devel- 
oped charity, which unites him tb-God. Am I, then, not 
right in saying that the twpnty-five past years of the ad- 


ministration of the Most Kev. Archbishop Lamy in this 
Territory have been an epoch of light, an epoch which has, 
seen from uncertain rays, the regal suns of justice, truth 
and Catholic civilization spread over this diocese, continu- 
ally widening their mighty prestige and increasing their 

And so shall these praiseworthy plans of the saintly 
Archbishop continue to bless the pious children of his 
" diocese. 

. As regards religious instruction. Dr. Lamy has created 
and developed it in every way, and he has seen that his 
zealous clergy did the same in every part of the diocese. 
He summoned religiouSj both men and women, to instruct 
the little ones of God, and when this could not be. done, 
he procured good and competent teachers to instruct the 
young. For what purpose did he make so many journeys, 
both to Europe and the United States, if not for the diffu- 
sion of knowledge in his diocese ? to bring there bodies of 
religious whp would help in the great work ? He increased 
wonderfully the number of parishes and provided good and 
zealous pastors for them. He brought the Fathers of the 
Society of Jesus particularly to give missions and renew 
the spirit of fervor which lay latent in the people. In all 
the schools and colleges under his direction religious in- 
struction formed the basis of all education, and with the 
principles of sciences the young of both sexes received, 
what is far more precious, a knowledge of the eternal 
principles upon which are planted the solid foundation of 
Catholic faith. 

Visit the classes of the Christian Brothers, of the Sisters 
of Loretto, Sisters of Charity, and others, and you will 
find the truth of this. 

He helped to found the Mevista Catholica for the diffusion 
of the same principles, and to convey religious instruction 
at the very firesides of the people. The people of New 
Mexico have great reason to give thanks to God for the 
good done among them in those twenty-five years by His 
faithful minister, Dr. Lamy. 

And another point, equally important, must be noticed, 
which has been caused by the wise administration of the 


venerable Archbishop. With instruction and the frequent 
reception of the Sacraments, immorality has been removed 
from the family; morality, virtue and religion have been 
made to flourish in the desert of past passions. Certainly 
all are not virtuous — there are some yet found vicious, but 
where is the wheat field that does not contain some 
cockle? where is the .garden in which, amidst the most 
brilliant flowers, a serpent may not lie hidden? There is 
no doubt that vices have diminished, and in the same pro- 
portion virtues have increased, public opinion has been 
corrected and reformed in many ways, and scandals can- 
not be created as easily as of yore. 

Finally, in those twenty-five years New Mexico has felt 
many beneficent influences, both of the spiritual and the 
civil kind. When Congress was organizing it as a Territory 
Kome Organized it as a Diocese. The civil Government 
formed counties, districts, etc. — the Church formed par- 
ishes, colleges, hospitals, schools, etc. It is a question 
whether the Government could have done as much as it 
did were it not for the Church. May the venerable Arch- 
bishop see many years more, and continue to see his work 
progressing and bearing heavy bunches of fruit in the Lord's, 
vineyard. He has stood the heat of the day in that vine- 
yard, may he also gather its delicious fruits and be com- 
forted with the heartfelt gratitude of his spiritual children. 

He has spent twenty-five years as Bishop of New Mex- 
ico, may he spend twenty-five more years as Archbishop, 
so that all may* celebrate his golden jubilee. This is all 
we can desire, and that our desire may be consummated 
we shall fervently pray to Heaven. 



Aeohbishop Lamy Builds Hi i Cathedeal. . 

One of the greatest monuments of the zeal of Arch- 
bishop Lamy is the Cathedral of San Francisco. Ii is not 
completed yet, for want of the necessary means. This 
great structure has been in- progress for many years. The 
corner-stone was laid on the 14th of July, 1869. The cere- 
mony was very solemn, and all the inhabitants of every 
denomination were present. The stone contarined the 
names of the President of the United States, General 
Grant, of the Governor of the Territory, and other Terri- 
torial. ofScers, together with some coins of gold, silver 
and copper, and also some documents and newspapers.. 
Three days afterwards some miscreant, for the sake of lucre,' 
stole the corner-stone, with its contents, and nothing has 
bten heard of it since. 

The Cathedral was at first commenced by an American 
architect, whose name has escaped me; but he did not 
understand the work, and the contract was rescinded and 
given to two very good French architects by the name 
of Antoine Mouly and his son, Projectus Mouly. Thei 
foundations being irregular, and not well constructed, 
they had to be recommenced, and for four years the work. 
went on wfthoufc ceasing, carrying the walls as high as the 
top of the windows. In the meanwhile Antoine Mouly 
commenced, little by little, to lose his sight. 

The Sisters of Loretfo, on the other hand-, desired for 
a long time a chapel near their Academy. Projectus 
Mouly, undertook the work, made the plans, and after 
five years finished a chapel that will stand favorable 
comparison with any other in the United States. He 
carried out himself his. own plan, and made of this a 
monument for himself. Shortly' after its completion he 
died, a real loss to the Church in Santa Fe. 


-In 1874, Antoine Mouly became totally blind, and. 
Father Equillon brought him to Prance, and in Paris a 
successful operation was performed- upon his eyes. The 
Cathedral remained in that State from the summer of 
1873 to the fall of 1878. On the 1st of November of that 
year the Very Rev. Equillon, V. G., was appointed parish 
priest of 'the Cathedral, and Father Fiallon was joined to 
him to prosecute the work upon the Cathedral, which he 
did for two years. Fatigued, and growing sick with much 
labor, he resigned and went to Europe, and the work upon 
the building was somewhat slackened. However, the cut- 
ting of stones, under the care of Michael Machebeuf, was 
continued without interruption, and a large quantity of 
blocks were prepared. Father Fiallon had carried the 
outside walls as far up as the cornice. After his departure 
Father Equillon gave the contract of placing the cornice, 
raising the north tower, and completing the front, to 
Vicente Digneoand Cajetano Palladino. They were helped 
by several artists who cut the front window, or rosace, at- 
least partly, being completed by Machebeuf , who had the 
sole direction of the whole work, and acted as architect, 
builder and stonecutter. 

In 1882 a contract was made by the church authorities 
on the one side, and Messrs. Moflnier and Machebeuf on 
the other, to complete the church as far as the arms of the 
cross, for the sum of nearly forty thousand dollars, the 
window-glass not included. The contractors obligated 
themselves to complete it. in three years, they finishing the 
inijer walls, the ceilings, roofing, flooring, plastering and 
painting, in one word making the church ready for use, 
as far as the arms of the cross. When the cross and the 
sanctuary will be built is a question of time, but it will be 

The old cathedral, built about one hundred and fifty 
years ago, has been demolished, and its adobes and rocks 
are now doing other public work. The people of Santa Fe 
have shown a great spirit of kindness. Under the super- 
vision of the untiring Don Carlos Couklin, .who did it 
simply for God, the people came during the whole month 
of August, 1884, some tearing down, others taking out the 


timbers, while others were loading and driving wagons . 
Not one cent was asked for either the use of wagons or the 
labor of the same. 

The windows are the gift of a few persons. They have 
been put in position and produce a grand effect. They are 
very fine, and came from the stores of Felix Gaadin, Cler- 
mont "Perrand, Prance. The one in front represents Christ 
sending His Apostles to preach. The six on each side are 
filled bythe twelve Apostles. The window over the door 
is filled by a beautiful stained etching representing Christ 
among the doctors in the temple, expounding to them the 
Scriptural law. This is in honor of the city of Santa Fe, 
the city of the Holy Faith. There will also be paintings of 
San Francisco, the Patron of the Church, of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, and St. Joseph. 
- The part of the church completed to the arms of the 
cross is one "hundred and twenty feet long, and sixty .feet 
broad, while the height of the ipiddle nave is fifty -five feet. 
The ceiling is arched in the Roman style, as is also the 
whole church. The walls are all of native rocks, quarried 
in the neighborhood of Santa Fe, except the inner walls, 
which were taken from Lamy Junction, eighteen miles 
away. The whole structure is of cut stone and presents a 
fine appearance. The ceilings have this peculiarity, they 
are made of red volcanic lava, exceedingly light, some 
weighing less than common hard wood. There are im- 
mense quarries of the same on the summit of Cerro Mogino, 
a small mound twelve miles from Santa Fe. The towers, 
also of cut stone, are now eighty-five feet high from the 
ground, and the spires, which will crown them will be 
seventy- five feet more, in all one hundred and sixty-feet. 

The cathedral thus far has cost one hundred and thirty 
thousand dollars. Almost all this has been collected in 
New Mexico. Santa Fe at first gathered in nine thousand 
dollars. The clergy helped everywhere, but the greatest 
part comes from his Grace the Archbishop and his worthy 
Vicar General, Father Eguillon, who many times hardly 
permitted themselves the bare necessities of life in order 
to advance the great cathedral. It would be wrong, how- 
ever, not to mention some gifts offered for God by 


Duna Maria Ortiz, whp, although not rich, presented the. 
Archbishop with five thousand dollars, and some rich and 
costly sacred vessels. Dona Maria was the sister of the^ 
ever to be rpmembered Rev. Juan Felipe, who was Vicar 
General when Dr. Lamy took possession of his diocese in 

God alone knows the acrifices made to advance thus far 
the building. For months the venerable Archbishop 
was far away in the dioceses of Mexico and Puebla, in 
Mexico, fulfilling the duties of a simple bishop in those 
parts, laboring constantly and sending home the alms he 
received, in order to pay for his cathedral. God bless him, 
God bless his labors ! May he be preserved a long time, 
and have the happiness of beholding the consecration of 
this great monument of his sacrifice! 

Behind the altar of the old cathedral are two treasures 
that ought to be recorded here, and will he kept most, 
sacredly in the new. Behind the wainscoting on the north: 
side, is a double headstone covering a sepulchre in which- 
are contained the bones of the body of the venerable Ger(j-». 
nimo de la Liana — an apostolic man of the Order of Saint 
Francis — which were brought from Gnarac de las Salinas 
on the 1st of April, 1759j at the cost of the Governor 
Francis Antonio Marin del Yalle, and placed there. Also;, 
the bones of-the body of the venerable Aseneio Zarate, of the 
Order of Saint Francis, brought from the ruins of -the old 
.church of St. Lawrence of Picuries, on the 8th of April,. 
1759, and located in the parish of the city of Santa Fe on 
the 31st of August of the same year. It is known that . 
■whenever the saintly Zubiriaj Bishop of Durango came to 
Santa Fe, he ordered the opening of the sepulchre to ven- 
erate the relics brought there from afar. 

The whole of the wall of the old sanctuary is a stone 
monument of this same Governor DelValle and his spouse. 
It is a rare monument and worthy of the utmost care. 



The Akchbishop Receives the Sistees or Meect. 

It would be doing a wrong to the zealous prelate who 
has ruled so wisely for years oyer the great Archdiocese of 
Santa Pe were I to omit the introduction among us of the- 
Sisters of Mercy, who supply a want long felt in this popu- 
lation. The Sisters of Loretto have established many mis- 
sions; so have the Sisters of Charity; but they could not 
supply all the demands for Sisters, and therefore recourse ■, 
was had to- the Sisters of Mercy, who happily heard and 
answered the call. 

In the northeast part of the diocese, between Las Vegas , 
and Mora, and the rivers of Sapello and Las Manuelitas, 
some years ago, many families from Santa Cruz and other, 
p'aces in Rio Arriba, formed a colony, and moved upon 
the Sapello, forming the settlements called Los Alamos, 
Soon they asked for a priest, and after several petitions, , 
the Right R6v. Bishop gave them as pastor the Rev* 
Francis J ouveneeau, late Vicar-General of Arizona. This 
was as far back as the year 1859. 

The first di£6.calty was to find a suitable location for the 
church. The Vicar-General of the diocese, the Very Rev. 
Father Machebeuf, chose the place where it now stands as, 
the most likely to be surrounded by a large population. 
He was disappointed in' this, and the settlement of Los. 
Alamos increased the most. The people were generous; 
they loved their pastor, and both with money and hard 
work built a fine church, which was the first in New Mex- 
ico with a shingle roof. The same year the church was 
dedicated to God under the name of Our Lady of Guad- 
alupe. This church is said to have cost six thousand dol- 
lars. Father Jouvenceau was removed Jaly 19, 1866. 

Rev. John Paure succeeded him for only a short timsj 
and then it was attended from Las Vegas to Septmebep 


23d of the same year, when the Eev. Alexander Mathonet 
was appointed pastor. He remained only to September 1, 
1857, when he was relieved of his duties by the Rev. 
Joseph Fiallon. The debt upon the church was paid by 
him, the population increased and spread as far down as 
the junction of the rivers, now called lia Junta, yet the 
parochial work was done by the pastor, with an assistant 

Later on La Junta was formed into a parish and given 
to the Jesuit Fathers, who built thers a fine church, dedi- 
cated to the Sacred Heart. The work was too hard for 
Father Fiallon, whose health began to fail, and he there- 
fore asked to be relieved of his duties, which was done on 
the 16th of November, 1875, by the appointment of the 
Eev. Anthony«Fourchegu, now pastor of Mora. 

Father Fourchegu did much for the church. In Sep- 
tember, 1875, a terrible storm had destroyed one of the 
towers, and the roof was in bad condition, but nothing 
could be done before 1879 for want of necessaty funds, 
when the church was repaired almost anew, to be thrown 
down again on the 29th of January, 1883; the walls, how- 
ever, withstood the storm. For awhile it was thought it 
would be entirely abandoned. However, thanks to th« 
efforts of Father Fourchegu, both by his own labor and 
monej', it was again repaired, so that it is said now to be 
in better shape than ever. 

What precedes shows how willing are priests and people 
under the hand of a prelate so revered as Archbishop 
Lamy. Such a priest and people could not be satisfied 
without schools, and therefore application was made, and 
it was granted with pleasure. 

At Los Alamos, in 1854, Don Jesus Maria Montoya had 
built a small chapel at his own cost, but it had become 
too small, and was in a ruinous condition, when, in 1879, 
it was thought prudeiit to build another. People came 
generously forward, and thanks to their offerings, and 
more still to those of their pastor, a far larger and better 
chapel was built at the cost of twenty-two hundred dollars. 
There was to be the new convent, there the new school, 
because there was really the people. Pastor and people. 


as soon as they had the approbation of the Archbishop, 
went to work, and soon a large convent was built. The 
Sisters of Mercy were invited to take possession of it, and 
in the fall of the year 1881 the schools and academy com- 
menced their work. Numerous young ladies flocked to 
the new academy. Day scholars hastened to place them- 
selves under the direction of such kind and learned teach- 
ers, and the school has been a complete success. 

Father Fourchegu wrote to me : 

"We cannot help congratulating ourselves on such a good 
success, and without wishing to give the Sisters of Mercy 
more praise than they deserve, we must say truly that we 
congratulate them for the success so far obtained. We are 
proud of them!" 

This Convent of Los Alamos is for the present the 
mother house of the Sisters of Mercy in Nejv Mexico. 
There they have their novitiate, and the vocations are not 
wanting among those pious Mexican young ladies who, be- 
sides being raised piously at home, have learned at school 
the worth of the Sisters; and thus, leaving all behind them, 
enroll themselves n the, ranks of these followers of Christ, 
whose aim is to imitate the mercy of the Divine Master by 
supplying the necessary wants to both, soul and body of 
those who come in contact with them. Their existence as 
a training body in New Mexico is of but yesterday, and 
already their influence is felt and the blessed soil of virtue 
which they brought with them produces great fruits in this, 
the Lord's western vineyard. 



Archbishop Salpointe is Appointed Coadjtjtoe — Resigna- 
tion OF Aechbishop Lamy. 

The work so well begun in the vast dioceae of Santa Fe 
has progressed every day. A number of new parishes have 
been formed of late years, so that they now number thirty- 
four; churches and chapels have been built everywhere, 
and to-day, besides the parish churches, they number two- 
hundred and thirty-eight. From a small number the clergy 
have increased to more than sixty. New schools have been 
established wherever possible. Now the good soldier, who 
for thirty-five ye.ars has fought the battles of the Lord, 
feels the need of resting his tired limbs and place a part of 
the burden upon younger shoulders, hence Archbishop 
Lamy applies to Bome, the tender Mother of all, for a 

Still, before getting his needed rest, much is to be done. 
All the Fathers-of this flourishing Church of America are 
called in solemn council to Baltimore. Advanced in years 
as he is, the venerable Archbishop did not refuse the duty. 
Accompanied by his two suffragans and bosom friends, he 
starts for the extreme East, to bring his learning and his 
experience into the councils of the Catholic Prelate of 

The venerable Archbishop, with Bishops Machebeuf 
and ^alpointe, the latter lately named Coadjutor, with 
right of succession, left Santa Fe on the 30th of October, 
1884, to take their part in the labors of the Plenary Coun- 
cil. Arrived in Baltimore, the venerable Coadjutor- re- 
ceived from Bome the notification of having been raised to 
the dignity of Archbishop, with the title of Archbishop of 

. I need say nothing of the weight and learning brought 
in that august assembly — all this is a matter of official 


history. Keturning in haste from the Council, Arch- 
bishop Salpointe went to Tucson, his episcopal city, - 
while Vicar Apostolic of Arizona, in order to settle all 
business in that Territory and bid adieu to his faithful 
flock before assuming higher but no less arduous duties. 

On the 19th of February, 1885, His Grace made his 
entry into Sfnta Fe to assume the responsibilities of his 

The Friday, 1st of May, was the day assigned as the 
day for the consecration of Rt. Eev. Peter Bourgade, 
D.D., the Vicar Apostolic of Arizona, "chosen by the Holy 
See to replace Archbishop Salpointe. The ceremonies 
were conducted with solemnity; His Grace^Most Eev. Arch- 
bishop Lamy being the consecrator, assisted by Arch- 
bishop Salpointe and Bishop Machebeuf , of Denver. The 
Cathedral was beautifully decorated, and at nine o'clock 
the procession was formed. An immense number of peo- 
ple took part in it. All the religious societies of Santa Fe, 
with their banners and' with the sweet music of three 
bands, were present. 

The procession having enter ed the Cathedral the im- 
posing ceremonies of consecration commenced. The 
venerable Archbishop himself addressed the vast assembly 
in Spanish, and Rt. Rev. Bishop Marchebeuf in English. 
•After the ceremonies the procession returned to the Archi- 
episcopal residence, and the, balance of the day was spent 
in festivities, terminating in the evening, as on the eve, by 
a fine display of fireworks and the booming of the cannon. 
A day never to be forgotten in Santa Fe, as it was the 
first ceremony of the kind that ever took place in the 
ancient city. ' 

iKow we come to the resignation of the Most Rev. 
■Archbishop Lamy, a breaking of the bonds so long bind- 
ing together the Pastor and his people, the Father and 
his childreri. Nothing could compensate us for such 
a loss, were it not that, like Christ to St. John, he points 
his worthj successor to us and says: "Behold your 
fatherl " Never tired of doing good, his very last official 
!♦ct■w^B 6ne of th^ gi'eateAt kindness, in giving us such 
a paetor as , Archbishop Salpointe. He will be cherished, 


not only for his own well-known arid distinguished merits, 
but also because he is j to , his children the gift of a 

On the first Sunday of September, 1885, the following 
circular was read in all the parochial churches of the arch- 

" For some years past we had asked of the Holy See a 
coadjutor in order to be relieved of the great responsibility 
that rested on our shoulders since the year 1850, when the 
supreme authority of the Church saw fit to establish a new 
diocese in New Mexico, and in spite of our limited capacity 
we were appointed its first Bishop. Now our petition has 
been heard and our resignation accepted. We are glad,, 
then, to have as a successor the illustrious Archbishop. 
MoHs. Salpointe, who is well known in this bishopric, 
and wortty of administering it, for the good of the souls 
and the greatest glory of Grod. 

What has prompted this determination is our advanced 
age, that often deprives us of the necessary strength in the 
fulfillment of our sacred ministry, though our health may 
apparently look robust. We- shall profit by the days left 
us to prepare ourselves the better to appear before the 
tribuual of God, in tranquility and solitude. 

We commend ourselves to the prayers of all, and par- 
ticularly those of our priests who, together with us, have 
borne and still bear the burden of the day, which is the 
great responsibility of directing the souls in the road of 
salvation. Let the latter remember that, in order that 
their holy ministry be of any benefit their example must 
accompany their instructions, It is with pleasure that we 
congratulate the most of the clergy of this diocese for 
their zeal and labors; and we desire that those who might 
have failed in- their sacred duties may give, hendefortb, 
better proofs of being the worthy ministers of God. 

We also commend ourselves to the prayers of the faith- 
ful, whose lively faith has edified us on many an occasion. 
We exhort them to persevere in this same faith, in their 
obedience to the Church, in their faithfulness to their daily 
obligations, in the religious frequence of the Sacraments, 


and in the devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary, which 
is one of the most efficacious means of sanctification. 

Finally, we hope that the few religious communities that 
we have had the haippiness to establish in this new diocese 
will offer some momento in their prayers for our spiritual 
benefit. t 

We ask of all to forgive us the faults we may have com- 
mitted in the exercise of our sacred ministry, and, on our 
part, we will not forget to offer to God our humble pray- 
.ers for all the souls that the Lord has intrusted to us for 
so many years. 

f J. B. liAMY, Arehbishop. 
Given at Santa Fe, N. M., on the 26th day of August, 

One consolation is left his venerable successor, his clergy 
and people, the firm resolution taken by the venerable 
Archbishop not to leave the Territory, the land of his 
adoption, the scene of his labors and struggles, th^ witness 
of his virtues and of his triumphs. 

The new title of Archbishop Lamy in retirement is 
Archbishop, of Gisicus, • 



The Most Eev, J. B Salpointe, D.D., Akchbishop op 

Santa Fe. 

Archbishop Salpointe assumed his title of Archbishop of 
Santa Fe on the Feast of St. AugustinOj August 28, 1885. 

Archbishop J. B. Salpointe was born at St. Maurice de 
Pionsat, a parish of the Diocese of Clermont-Ferrand, in 
France, on the 25th of February, 1825. His parents be- 
longed to one of the best families of the place. Thoroughly 
Christians, they cultivated from his earliest infancy the 
desire he manifested for the priesthood, and those fine 
dispositions of the mind and of the heart which have made 
him beloved by all who came near him. 

At*an early age he was sent to study classics at the petit 
Seminary of Agen, in the Department of Creuse, after- 
wards he completed his preparatory studies at the College 
of Biom, and finally, after passing the most creditable 
examination, entered the Seminary of Montferrand, where . 
he studied theology, canon law, and all those other branches 
which are necessary for the ministry. Always of a pious 
tendency, he matured that disposition more and more 
in the silence of that retreat of Montferrand, known to 
have produced so many shining lights in the Church. He 
was ordained priest in 1851. 

Soon after ordination. Abbe Salpointe was sent as assist- 
ant priest successively at SoUedes, Menat and Clermont, 
and rising constantly, according as his merit was better 
known, he soon after was appointed Professor of Natural 
Sciences in the Diocesan Seminary of Clermont, acting at 
the same time as the Procurator of the Seminary. Thus 
in a few years he had risen, filling one of the most im- 
portant offices of the Diocese, with the well-founded hope 
of rising still higher in a very few years. 


But Providence had decreed it otherwise, and those 
bright qualities of the young priest were to be developed 
in a far away country that needed them more. In 1859, 
Father Eguillpn, Vicar-General of Santa Fe, was sent by 
Bishop Lam'y to get new recruits for his vast dioaese,- Nat- 
urally he went to Clermont, the nursery of missicfnaries, 
for the New World. Father Salpointe, giving up all worldly 
hopes in his native land, offered his services, and having 
obtained the necessary permission from his Ordinary, the 
venerable Mgr. Ferron, embarked for America on thelTth 
of August, 1859. In that holy band were Fathers J. E. 
Eaverdy, actual Vicar-General of Denver; Francis Jouven- 
ceau, pro- Vicar-General of Arizona, under Bishop Salpointe; 
Bernard and Bernol, both dead, the one at Socorro and 
the latter at Sinaloa. In their company were also a num- 
ber of Christian Brothers. After a long and tedious jour- 
ney on the plains, they reached Santa Fe in November of 
the same year, 1859. 

In Santa Fe, also, the young priest rose rapidly, and , 
after a short time in the diocese we find him parish priest 
of Mora, one of the rnost important positions of the diocese. 
But what were these things to the young priest ? He had 
come to work, in the vineyard of the Lord, it mattered not 
vFhere. Thus disposed, thus always ready for the call, it 
is no wonder that we see him giving up his large parish, 
with all its advantages, to follow the voice of his Bishop.' 
There are missions in the district, Arizona, withput shep- 
herds — the faith of. those Christians is in danger. It mat- 
ters not whether there are vast, deserts separating New 
Mexico from Arizona, that the Apaches are on the war- 
path, that other apostles have been slain, and that others 
more fortunate have fled with their bare lives — Father 
Salpointe hears the voice of his Bishop calling on devoted > 
men, who count dangers as nothing, who are willing to 
make ihe greatest sacrifices, and the ddsiim of his ordina- 
tion resounds sweetly in the ears of Bishop Lamy. The 
good Father does not command — he only appeals to his 
children. The dangers are great, the sacrifices immense; . 
but there is the man of heart; he presents himself, Ja 
accepted at once, and on the 7th of January, i8§6, he 


leaves Santa Fe for his distant and dangerous mission, 
aocompani^d by Fathers Boucard and Birmingham -and 
an ecclesiastical student, Mr. Vincent. After one month's 
journey across the deserts of southern New Mexico and 
eastern ^Arizona, then infested with Apaches, the generous 
missionaries reached Tnceon. The metropolis of Arizona 
^as then a small Mexican town, without church or priest'^ 

Father Salpointe, before leaving Santa Fe, had been 
appointed Victor-General for the missions of Anzbna, with 
Tucson as his residence. The young vicar went to work 
at once, and, after three years of hard work as we 
have seen elsewhere, he succeeded in building a substantial 
edifice, used to this day as the Cathedral. 

Under his supervision a large convent was erected', ^ere 
to-day a great number of young persons receive a thof&ugh 
Catholic education. 

During bis stay in Arizona as Vicar-General, several 
churches were built, particularly one in Yuma, where a 
priest took up his residence. Saint Xavier del Bac, that 
monument of art, was not forgotten, and there also resided 
a priest, and a school was established. 

Now the Church had her motherly eyes fixed upon the 
generous priest. At the close of the Second Plenary 
Council of Baltimore, Arizona was separated from the 
Diocese of Santa Fe and erected into a Vicariate Apostolic, 
and Father Salpointe, as everyone could foresee, was ap- 
pointed-by aPapal Bull, of September, 1868i Bishop of 
Dorzla and Vicar Apostolic of Arizona. 

He resisted such honors, but on receiving the order 
from the Holy See humbly submitted, and, starting for 
France, was solemnly consecrated in the Cathedral of 

The consecrating Bishop was the same venerable Mgr. 
Ferron who had confirmed the boy, ordained the priest 
and consecrated the Bishop. The heart of the venerable 
ptelate wanhisd up again in bis old age at such an honor 
conferred upon him by the Almighty, as he used to fre- 
quently express it. 

!^rom France the new Bishop went to Borne, the foun- 


tain of all good, and after receiving the commendations of 
Pius IX, started at once for his Vast field of labor, accom- 
panied by sis students, who were in holy orders. The 
Vicariate of Arizona had then only two priests on the 

His life and labors in that post of duty are too well 
known to speak of them extensively. Suffice it to say, that 
during his sixteen years' administration several parishes 
were formed, churches were erected, convfents built, and 
schools established in all the larger settlements. It is 
enough to say, that when he left Arizona, at the voice of the 
Sovereign Pontiff, the Vicariate counted fifteen churches, 
fourteen priests, seven convents and two hospitals. 

The Indians were not forgotten or neglected, for the 
good shepherd gave his special attention to those poor 
children of the forest. Several times he visited the 
Apaches on their reservation, and on various occasions sent 
priests among them. 

The school he established at San Xavier del Bac was for 
the Papago Indians. The struggle was long and hard, 
but by his perseverence he had the happiness of seeing 
restored to the Catholics the Agency of the Catholic In- 
dians of Arizona. But it was of short duration, for the 
Agency was lost again through the intrigues of the Gov- 
ernor of the Territory. - Father Salpointe was the first to 
establish free Catholic schools for boys at several points of 
his Vicariate. 

His labors and toils can be appreciated only by those 
who have labored under his guidance, and his memory 
lives to-day in Arizona in the hearts of all, be they Cath- 
olics or not. All saw in him a public benefactor, a noble 
citizen, a worthy minister of Jesus Christ. 

Events succeeded one another rapidly. In 1885, Bishop 
Salpointe was transferred to Santa Fe. In the beginning 
of the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore he was raised to 
the dignity of Archbishop, and only a few months after- 
wards he was again transferred to the See of Santa Fe, left, 
vacant bythe resignation of Archbishop Lamy. 

Archbishop Salpointe received the pallium in the chapel 
of the Sisters of Loretto at the hands of Archbishop Lamy 
on the 21st of November, 1885. 



The End. 

The work so well commenced in this diocese is progress- 
ing every day. New parishes are formed, churches and 
chapels are built, new schools are established everywhere; 
the. zealous clergy are enlarging their missionary labors; 
the religious are improving their aeadamies, colleges and 
schools, so that from a religious point of view the diocese 
is making rapid strides toward* perfection. 

It is improving, also, from a temporal point of view. 
Eailroads are entering more and more into every recess 
of our mountains and valleys ; new towns are built; a 
new population enters daily into the Territory; the mines 
are developing fast, many new mining companies are 
formed and manufactures of all kinds are being established 

One subject, dear to the heart of Dr. Salpointe, is the 
Indian question. Much has been done for them in the 
past years. The Archbishop has. been unceasing in his 
labors to get those poor, benighted children of the prairies 
under the civilizing and sanctifying influences of the Cath- 
olic Church. Towards the accomplishment of that pur- 
pose he has undertaken journeys to Washington and 
elsewhere in the East,, to plead his case with the country's 
Bepresentatives . 

He has visited every pueblo, has spoken to the fathers 
of families', has written letters after letters, has given, 
money of his own, notwithstanding his poverty, to start 
schools, and thank God he has succeeded admirably. 

Taos, San Juan, Santo Domingo, San Felipe, Jemez, 

' Isleta Orcom a, Zuni, have their schools,while a large school 

is put up m Banta Fe for the boys of pueblos too small 

to be able to have schools, and the Sisters of Loretto, in 

Bernalillo, take care of a large number of giils. 


The Indian is very apt in learning, and makes rapid 
progress. It is a mistake with many to think that the 
Indian child is dull of comprehension, and cannot learn 
science and art. He learns fast ; he learns well. Alas ! 
that we should have to say so ! Under preceding Ad- 
ministrations the po«r Pueblo child was placed in non- 
Catholic schools, qp-called " unsectarian." But neverthe- 
less his faith was tampered with, names were changed, and 
often the child returned home neither an Indian nor 
a white man. He returned home ashamed of his father!s 
Indian name. How could such* boys as Washburn Col- 
lege, or, Diode, the Kid ever be able to know their father's 
names ? 

Thanks be to God, all this is changed; the efforts of 
Archbishop Salpointe are partially covered with success; 
we have every reason to be hopeful ; journeys, time, 
money, Dr. Salpointe gives all, and he is well seconded 
by Father Antonio Jouvenceau, who has imbibed for 
years the spirit of self-denial which is so characteristic 
of his Bishop. 

The civil administration, too, is more favorable, and 
with the uncompromising Father Stephan in the Bureau 
of Indian Affairs, and the worthy Agent, Williams, all is 
well. The times are passed when an Indian Commis- 
sioner upon representations made in the name of Arch- 
bishop Lamy, would answer and say that he could not 
entertain our views or our offers. 

It must be noted here that there are nearly twelve 
thousand Catholic Pueblo Indians in the Territory, with 
many Mescaleros, baptized in the Church. 

These historical documents are far from being •omplete, 
from want of the necessary means foi' reaching all points. 
However, what has been written is history, and no fiction. 
I invite with all my heart any document that might conduce 
to a better understanding of the history of New Mexico, a 
a vast mine far from being developed — an immense field 
only partly plowed. 

The idea of writing these notes is not mine, it comes 
directly from Eome. In 1884, the Congregation de Propa- 
ganda Fide desired a succinct history of New Mexico in a 


religious point of view. Archbishop Lamy charged me 
^with the work. I wrote it as briefly as possible. It was 
sent as written, with its erasures and corrections. The 
venerable Prelate received a letter of thanks, which, how- 
ever, contained the desire of seeing something a little more 
developed. This desire was a command, and it has been 
a labor of love. ' 

These remarks are my preface and conclusion. May 
this little work prove useful to religion find science, and in 
time receive more facts, more documents, and thus form 
the nucleus of a history of New Mexico. 



The foliowiug documents, certified as correctly copied 
from the original Spanish journal of Vargas, by the actual 
librarian, the venerable Samuel EUison, is of great impor- 
tance to show the antiquity of the Church of St. Michael. 
The said Governor and Captain-General de Vargas, as 1 
read it in his own journal, makes an entry under the form 
of a mariginal note, thus: " The said Governor .and Cap- 
tain-General orders the the Captain and Governor of the 
walled pueblo, as also Antonio Bolsas, and together go to 
examine the Hermitage of St. Michael, so that it, being 
repaired, it may serve as a church till the coming of sumr 

I will now lay before my readers this command of Vargas, 
as well as the other, which refers to the burial of the re- 
mains of the Eev. Father John, of Jesus, martyred at 
Jemez in 1680, at the time of the revolution of the Indians. 

Following these documents is the certificate of Mr. Elli- 
son, which will serve, no doubt, to give authority to these 
documents, the original of which may be seen by any 
inquirer in the archives of Santa Fe. 

A. D. 1692, December 18, 

On the said . day, month and year of the date, I, said 
Governor and Captain-General, very much grieved on 
account of the severity of the weather and the cold (suf- 
fered by the Indians) who in troops while away the time 
visiting the (ranch) huts in the plain. And, in order to' 
act in everything with necessary prudence, I mounted on 
horseback, and with a few military officers and the Cap- 
tains Francisco Lucero de Godoy and Eoque Madrid, I 
went to examine the church or hermitage which was used 
as a parish church for the Mexican Indians who lived in 
the said town (villa) under the title of the invocation of 
their patron, the Archangel St. Michael. And having 
examined it, though of small dimensions, and not for the 
accommodation of a great number; notwithstanding, on 
account of said inclemency of the weather, and the urgency 


of having a church in which should be celebrated the 
Divine Office and the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, and in 
order that Our Lady of the Conquest may have a becoming 
place, I, said Governor and Captain-General, recognized 
that it is proper to roof said walls, and to whitewash and 
repair its skylights (windows) in a manner that shall be the 
quickest, easiest, briefest and least laborious to said na- 

The parties alluded to being present, and the said Gov- 
ernors of aforesaid pueblo, JToseph and Antonio Bolas, I 
ordered that they should send said natives; having taken 
measures in respect to lumber aforesaid, and having offered 
them axes, and mules for its fast conveyance, that those 
who were adapted to hewing said, lumber should do so, 
and that those who were fit for the trade of masons in re- 
pairing said walls should be ordered in like manner, and 
that I, on my part, should have the Spaniards whom I had 
with me to assist thereat. 

And that said work should be immediately executed, I 
went with them to aforesaid pueblo, and being within their 
village square (plaza), I ordered the natives who were there 
in the manner before described. And I also exhorted them 
to go with cheerfulness to said labor, and that such it really 
was not, to make a house for God and Ms Most 
Blessed Mother, our Virgin Lady, who was enclosed in a 
wagon; and that if a lady came they were obliged to furnish 
her with a house, and that such was their duty; and mine 
it was to issue ^ch orders with much force, because that 
the Lord our God might punish us, seeing that, being 
Christians, we did not make the church immediately, which 
they promised to accomplish, as I had ordered; and they 
(afterward) sent for the axes which I gave unto them im- 
mediately and a hide to make a ladder. 

And for the authenticity of these proceedings, I have 
had an act thereof drawn up and signed it, with my secre- 
retary in civil and military "ffairs. 

D. Diego de Vaegas Zapata Ldjon Ponoe dh Leon. 

KoQUB DE Madrid. 

Before me, Joseph de Contkeeas. 

Antonin Balverde, 

Military and Civil Secretary. 


On said tenth day of August, aforesaid date, having 
heard Mass and the sermon, on the feast of the holy martyr 
Saint Laurence, of this day, theEev. Father Vice-Guardian 
Fr. John Munos de Castro and the other Eeverend Fathers 
Missionaries Apostolic, came to bid me welcome. Governor 
and Captain-General as aforesaid, and presented their 
congratulations for my success and triumph, and most of 
all in that in which they were so interested, the investure 
of the bones which were judged to be, and are undoubtedly 
considered to be those of the Eev. Father Friar, John of 
Jesus, missionary, who was Apostolic? Preacher in the Con- 
vent of the Pueblo of Jemez, who, on the eleventh day of 
August, one thousand six hundred and eighty, was in- 
humanly killed. And having in my room said bones, with 
the scull, I exhibited and showed them to them in a box 
of medium size, witk lock and key. They were arranged 
in two (parts), the nrst of damask mandarin of two colors, 
crimson and yellow, the other of Brittany, with a large 
ribbon, and in this form said bones were collected and 
enveloped in said box, the key thereof being given to 
aforesaid Eev. Vice- Guardian; and it appearing that it was 
his wish to bury them the next day, which is to-morrow, 
the eleventh of month aforesaid; and they (meantime) 
remain in my said room, thence to be carried forth for in- 

And for the authenticity of the aforesaid, I have signed, 
with my aforesaid secretary in military and civil affairs. 

D. Diego de Vakgas Zapata Lujon' Ponce db Leon. 
Before me, 

Alfonso Eael de Aguilae, 
Secretary in Civil and Military Affairs. 

On the eleventh day of said month of August, of the 
date (aforesaid) and year, to carry forth for burial the 
bones and skull which are judged to be those of the de- 
ceased missionary, Father John of Jesus, which are in my 
room where I sleep, there came the Eev. Father Commis- 
sary and Vice- Guardian of said Kingdom, Friar Juan 
Munos de Castro, in company with the other discreet 


Fathers ■who are in this town (villa), and he asked me, as 
did also said Bev. Fathers, Missionaries, to proceed to the 
translation and interment of the bones and skull aforemen7 
tioned, and that I should give them the certificate relating 
therein the circumstances in the manner narrated by me 
authentically in said acts, which I gave unto them imme- 
diately, and my civil and military secretary having trans- 
cribed it, I ordered it to be entered in said acts. And they 
proceeded to translate and inter said bones and skull, 
placed in said box, closed and fastened, in the chapel 
which is used as a parish church for this garrison; which 
they did on the gospel side of the high altar, I, sa,id Govr 
ernor and Captain-General, having been present with a 
concourse of soldiers and vassals who were present in this 
aforesaid town. 

Witness my' hand, with that of my military and civil 
military secretary. 

D. Diego de Vargas Zapata Lujon Ponoe de Leon. 
Before me, 

Alfonso Bael de Aguilar, 
Secretary in Military and Civil Affairs. 

I do hereby certify that the foregoing two pages contain 
a true and correct copy taken by me from the original 
journal of Diego de Vargas Zapata Lujon Ponze de Leon, 
then Governor and Captain-General of the then Kingdom 
and Provinces of New Mexico.' Said journal remains 
among the Spanish and Mexican archives in my charge as 
Librarian and ex-officio custodian of said archives. This 
19th day of November, a. d. 1885. 

I Sam'l Ellison, 

Territorial Librarian. 



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